ETH Price: $3,066.86 (-2.55%)
 

Overview

Max Total Supply

36,965,730,332.999999999826460672 DEGEN

Holders

761,260 ( 0.007%)

Market

Price

$0.01 @ 0.000002 ETH (-11.82%)

Onchain Market Cap

$217,440,558.28

Circulating Supply Market Cap

$73,692,721.00

Other Info

Token Contract (WITH 18 Decimals)

Balance
120 DEGEN

Value
$0.71 ( ~0.000231506858500018 ETH) [0.0000%]
0xae83aa5c6bb4b427e222d568e4fdcc2ef2194159
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OVERVIEW

Degen, an ERC-20 token on Base, launched in January 2024 with an airdrop to the Degen channel community on Farcaster. Our goal is to distribute the token among builders, content creators, and users in the Base and Farcaster ecosystem.

Market

Volume (24H):$15,127,073.00
Market Capitalization:$73,692,721.00
Circulating Supply:12,481,637,551.00 DEGEN
Market Data Source: Coinmarketcap

Contract Source Code Verified (Exact Match)

Contract Name:
DegenToken

Compiler Version
v0.8.20+commit.a1b79de6

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 999999 runs

Other Settings:
paris EvmVersion, Audited
File 1 of 30 : Ownable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (access/Ownable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {Context} from "../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Contract module which provides a basic access control mechanism, where
 * there is an account (an owner) that can be granted exclusive access to
 * specific functions.
 *
 * The initial owner is set to the address provided by the deployer. This can
 * later be changed with {transferOwnership}.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the modifier
 * `onlyOwner`, which can be applied to your functions to restrict their use to
 * the owner.
 */
abstract contract Ownable is Context {
    address private _owner;

    /**
     * @dev The caller account is not authorized to perform an operation.
     */
    error OwnableUnauthorizedAccount(address account);

    /**
     * @dev The owner is not a valid owner account. (eg. `address(0)`)
     */
    error OwnableInvalidOwner(address owner);

    event OwnershipTransferred(address indexed previousOwner, address indexed newOwner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract setting the address provided by the deployer as the initial owner.
     */
    constructor(address initialOwner) {
        if (initialOwner == address(0)) {
            revert OwnableInvalidOwner(address(0));
        }
        _transferOwnership(initialOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
     */
    modifier onlyOwner() {
        _checkOwner();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address of the current owner.
     */
    function owner() public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _owner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if the sender is not the owner.
     */
    function _checkOwner() internal view virtual {
        if (owner() != _msgSender()) {
            revert OwnableUnauthorizedAccount(_msgSender());
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Leaves the contract without owner. It will not be possible to call
     * `onlyOwner` functions. Can only be called by the current owner.
     *
     * NOTE: Renouncing ownership will leave the contract without an owner,
     * thereby disabling any functionality that is only available to the owner.
     */
    function renounceOwnership() public virtual onlyOwner {
        _transferOwnership(address(0));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Can only be called by the current owner.
     */
    function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public virtual onlyOwner {
        if (newOwner == address(0)) {
            revert OwnableInvalidOwner(address(0));
        }
        _transferOwnership(newOwner);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers ownership of the contract to a new account (`newOwner`).
     * Internal function without access restriction.
     */
    function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal virtual {
        address oldOwner = _owner;
        _owner = newOwner;
        emit OwnershipTransferred(oldOwner, newOwner);
    }
}

File 2 of 30 : IVotes.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (governance/utils/IVotes.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Common interface for {ERC20Votes}, {ERC721Votes}, and other {Votes}-enabled contracts.
 */
interface IVotes {
    /**
     * @dev The signature used has expired.
     */
    error VotesExpiredSignature(uint256 expiry);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when an account changes their delegate.
     */
    event DelegateChanged(address indexed delegator, address indexed fromDelegate, address indexed toDelegate);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when a token transfer or delegate change results in changes to a delegate's number of voting units.
     */
    event DelegateVotesChanged(address indexed delegate, uint256 previousVotes, uint256 newVotes);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the current amount of votes that `account` has.
     */
    function getVotes(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of votes that `account` had at a specific moment in the past. If the `clock()` is
     * configured to use block numbers, this will return the value at the end of the corresponding block.
     */
    function getPastVotes(address account, uint256 timepoint) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total supply of votes available at a specific moment in the past. If the `clock()` is
     * configured to use block numbers, this will return the value at the end of the corresponding block.
     *
     * NOTE: This value is the sum of all available votes, which is not necessarily the sum of all delegated votes.
     * Votes that have not been delegated are still part of total supply, even though they would not participate in a
     * vote.
     */
    function getPastTotalSupply(uint256 timepoint) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the delegate that `account` has chosen.
     */
    function delegates(address account) external view returns (address);

    /**
     * @dev Delegates votes from the sender to `delegatee`.
     */
    function delegate(address delegatee) external;

    /**
     * @dev Delegates votes from signer to `delegatee`.
     */
    function delegateBySig(address delegatee, uint256 nonce, uint256 expiry, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) external;
}

File 3 of 30 : Votes.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (governance/utils/Votes.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {IERC5805} from "../../interfaces/IERC5805.sol";
import {Context} from "../../utils/Context.sol";
import {Nonces} from "../../utils/Nonces.sol";
import {EIP712} from "../../utils/cryptography/EIP712.sol";
import {Checkpoints} from "../../utils/structs/Checkpoints.sol";
import {SafeCast} from "../../utils/math/SafeCast.sol";
import {ECDSA} from "../../utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol";
import {Time} from "../../utils/types/Time.sol";

/**
 * @dev This is a base abstract contract that tracks voting units, which are a measure of voting power that can be
 * transferred, and provides a system of vote delegation, where an account can delegate its voting units to a sort of
 * "representative" that will pool delegated voting units from different accounts and can then use it to vote in
 * decisions. In fact, voting units _must_ be delegated in order to count as actual votes, and an account has to
 * delegate those votes to itself if it wishes to participate in decisions and does not have a trusted representative.
 *
 * This contract is often combined with a token contract such that voting units correspond to token units. For an
 * example, see {ERC721Votes}.
 *
 * The full history of delegate votes is tracked on-chain so that governance protocols can consider votes as distributed
 * at a particular block number to protect against flash loans and double voting. The opt-in delegate system makes the
 * cost of this history tracking optional.
 *
 * When using this module the derived contract must implement {_getVotingUnits} (for example, make it return
 * {ERC721-balanceOf}), and can use {_transferVotingUnits} to track a change in the distribution of those units (in the
 * previous example, it would be included in {ERC721-_update}).
 */
abstract contract Votes is Context, EIP712, Nonces, IERC5805 {
    using Checkpoints for Checkpoints.Trace208;

    bytes32 private constant DELEGATION_TYPEHASH =
        keccak256("Delegation(address delegatee,uint256 nonce,uint256 expiry)");

    mapping(address account => address) private _delegatee;

    mapping(address delegatee => Checkpoints.Trace208) private _delegateCheckpoints;

    Checkpoints.Trace208 private _totalCheckpoints;

    /**
     * @dev The clock was incorrectly modified.
     */
    error ERC6372InconsistentClock();

    /**
     * @dev Lookup to future votes is not available.
     */
    error ERC5805FutureLookup(uint256 timepoint, uint48 clock);

    /**
     * @dev Clock used for flagging checkpoints. Can be overridden to implement timestamp based
     * checkpoints (and voting), in which case {CLOCK_MODE} should be overridden as well to match.
     */
    function clock() public view virtual returns (uint48) {
        return Time.blockNumber();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Machine-readable description of the clock as specified in EIP-6372.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function CLOCK_MODE() public view virtual returns (string memory) {
        // Check that the clock was not modified
        if (clock() != Time.blockNumber()) {
            revert ERC6372InconsistentClock();
        }
        return "mode=blocknumber&from=default";
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the current amount of votes that `account` has.
     */
    function getVotes(address account) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _delegateCheckpoints[account].latest();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of votes that `account` had at a specific moment in the past. If the `clock()` is
     * configured to use block numbers, this will return the value at the end of the corresponding block.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `timepoint` must be in the past. If operating using block numbers, the block must be already mined.
     */
    function getPastVotes(address account, uint256 timepoint) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        uint48 currentTimepoint = clock();
        if (timepoint >= currentTimepoint) {
            revert ERC5805FutureLookup(timepoint, currentTimepoint);
        }
        return _delegateCheckpoints[account].upperLookupRecent(SafeCast.toUint48(timepoint));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the total supply of votes available at a specific moment in the past. If the `clock()` is
     * configured to use block numbers, this will return the value at the end of the corresponding block.
     *
     * NOTE: This value is the sum of all available votes, which is not necessarily the sum of all delegated votes.
     * Votes that have not been delegated are still part of total supply, even though they would not participate in a
     * vote.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `timepoint` must be in the past. If operating using block numbers, the block must be already mined.
     */
    function getPastTotalSupply(uint256 timepoint) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        uint48 currentTimepoint = clock();
        if (timepoint >= currentTimepoint) {
            revert ERC5805FutureLookup(timepoint, currentTimepoint);
        }
        return _totalCheckpoints.upperLookupRecent(SafeCast.toUint48(timepoint));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the current total supply of votes.
     */
    function _getTotalSupply() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _totalCheckpoints.latest();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the delegate that `account` has chosen.
     */
    function delegates(address account) public view virtual returns (address) {
        return _delegatee[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Delegates votes from the sender to `delegatee`.
     */
    function delegate(address delegatee) public virtual {
        address account = _msgSender();
        _delegate(account, delegatee);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Delegates votes from signer to `delegatee`.
     */
    function delegateBySig(
        address delegatee,
        uint256 nonce,
        uint256 expiry,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) public virtual {
        if (block.timestamp > expiry) {
            revert VotesExpiredSignature(expiry);
        }
        address signer = ECDSA.recover(
            _hashTypedDataV4(keccak256(abi.encode(DELEGATION_TYPEHASH, delegatee, nonce, expiry))),
            v,
            r,
            s
        );
        _useCheckedNonce(signer, nonce);
        _delegate(signer, delegatee);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Delegate all of `account`'s voting units to `delegatee`.
     *
     * Emits events {IVotes-DelegateChanged} and {IVotes-DelegateVotesChanged}.
     */
    function _delegate(address account, address delegatee) internal virtual {
        address oldDelegate = delegates(account);
        _delegatee[account] = delegatee;

        emit DelegateChanged(account, oldDelegate, delegatee);
        _moveDelegateVotes(oldDelegate, delegatee, _getVotingUnits(account));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers, mints, or burns voting units. To register a mint, `from` should be zero. To register a burn, `to`
     * should be zero. Total supply of voting units will be adjusted with mints and burns.
     */
    function _transferVotingUnits(address from, address to, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        if (from == address(0)) {
            _push(_totalCheckpoints, _add, SafeCast.toUint208(amount));
        }
        if (to == address(0)) {
            _push(_totalCheckpoints, _subtract, SafeCast.toUint208(amount));
        }
        _moveDelegateVotes(delegates(from), delegates(to), amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Moves delegated votes from one delegate to another.
     */
    function _moveDelegateVotes(address from, address to, uint256 amount) private {
        if (from != to && amount > 0) {
            if (from != address(0)) {
                (uint256 oldValue, uint256 newValue) = _push(
                    _delegateCheckpoints[from],
                    _subtract,
                    SafeCast.toUint208(amount)
                );
                emit DelegateVotesChanged(from, oldValue, newValue);
            }
            if (to != address(0)) {
                (uint256 oldValue, uint256 newValue) = _push(
                    _delegateCheckpoints[to],
                    _add,
                    SafeCast.toUint208(amount)
                );
                emit DelegateVotesChanged(to, oldValue, newValue);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get number of checkpoints for `account`.
     */
    function _numCheckpoints(address account) internal view virtual returns (uint32) {
        return SafeCast.toUint32(_delegateCheckpoints[account].length());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get the `pos`-th checkpoint for `account`.
     */
    function _checkpoints(
        address account,
        uint32 pos
    ) internal view virtual returns (Checkpoints.Checkpoint208 memory) {
        return _delegateCheckpoints[account].at(pos);
    }

    function _push(
        Checkpoints.Trace208 storage store,
        function(uint208, uint208) view returns (uint208) op,
        uint208 delta
    ) private returns (uint208, uint208) {
        return store.push(clock(), op(store.latest(), delta));
    }

    function _add(uint208 a, uint208 b) private pure returns (uint208) {
        return a + b;
    }

    function _subtract(uint208 a, uint208 b) private pure returns (uint208) {
        return a - b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Must return the voting units held by an account.
     */
    function _getVotingUnits(address) internal view virtual returns (uint256);
}

File 4 of 30 : draft-IERC6093.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (interfaces/draft-IERC6093.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Standard ERC20 Errors
 * Interface of the https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-6093[ERC-6093] custom errors for ERC20 tokens.
 */
interface IERC20Errors {
    /**
     * @dev Indicates an error related to the current `balance` of a `sender`. Used in transfers.
     * @param sender Address whose tokens are being transferred.
     * @param balance Current balance for the interacting account.
     * @param needed Minimum amount required to perform a transfer.
     */
    error ERC20InsufficientBalance(address sender, uint256 balance, uint256 needed);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the token `sender`. Used in transfers.
     * @param sender Address whose tokens are being transferred.
     */
    error ERC20InvalidSender(address sender);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the token `receiver`. Used in transfers.
     * @param receiver Address to which tokens are being transferred.
     */
    error ERC20InvalidReceiver(address receiver);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `spender`’s `allowance`. Used in transfers.
     * @param spender Address that may be allowed to operate on tokens without being their owner.
     * @param allowance Amount of tokens a `spender` is allowed to operate with.
     * @param needed Minimum amount required to perform a transfer.
     */
    error ERC20InsufficientAllowance(address spender, uint256 allowance, uint256 needed);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `approver` of a token to be approved. Used in approvals.
     * @param approver Address initiating an approval operation.
     */
    error ERC20InvalidApprover(address approver);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `spender` to be approved. Used in approvals.
     * @param spender Address that may be allowed to operate on tokens without being their owner.
     */
    error ERC20InvalidSpender(address spender);
}

/**
 * @dev Standard ERC721 Errors
 * Interface of the https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-6093[ERC-6093] custom errors for ERC721 tokens.
 */
interface IERC721Errors {
    /**
     * @dev Indicates that an address can't be an owner. For example, `address(0)` is a forbidden owner in EIP-20.
     * Used in balance queries.
     * @param owner Address of the current owner of a token.
     */
    error ERC721InvalidOwner(address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a `tokenId` whose `owner` is the zero address.
     * @param tokenId Identifier number of a token.
     */
    error ERC721NonexistentToken(uint256 tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates an error related to the ownership over a particular token. Used in transfers.
     * @param sender Address whose tokens are being transferred.
     * @param tokenId Identifier number of a token.
     * @param owner Address of the current owner of a token.
     */
    error ERC721IncorrectOwner(address sender, uint256 tokenId, address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the token `sender`. Used in transfers.
     * @param sender Address whose tokens are being transferred.
     */
    error ERC721InvalidSender(address sender);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the token `receiver`. Used in transfers.
     * @param receiver Address to which tokens are being transferred.
     */
    error ERC721InvalidReceiver(address receiver);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `operator`’s approval. Used in transfers.
     * @param operator Address that may be allowed to operate on tokens without being their owner.
     * @param tokenId Identifier number of a token.
     */
    error ERC721InsufficientApproval(address operator, uint256 tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `approver` of a token to be approved. Used in approvals.
     * @param approver Address initiating an approval operation.
     */
    error ERC721InvalidApprover(address approver);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `operator` to be approved. Used in approvals.
     * @param operator Address that may be allowed to operate on tokens without being their owner.
     */
    error ERC721InvalidOperator(address operator);
}

/**
 * @dev Standard ERC1155 Errors
 * Interface of the https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-6093[ERC-6093] custom errors for ERC1155 tokens.
 */
interface IERC1155Errors {
    /**
     * @dev Indicates an error related to the current `balance` of a `sender`. Used in transfers.
     * @param sender Address whose tokens are being transferred.
     * @param balance Current balance for the interacting account.
     * @param needed Minimum amount required to perform a transfer.
     * @param tokenId Identifier number of a token.
     */
    error ERC1155InsufficientBalance(address sender, uint256 balance, uint256 needed, uint256 tokenId);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the token `sender`. Used in transfers.
     * @param sender Address whose tokens are being transferred.
     */
    error ERC1155InvalidSender(address sender);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the token `receiver`. Used in transfers.
     * @param receiver Address to which tokens are being transferred.
     */
    error ERC1155InvalidReceiver(address receiver);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `operator`’s approval. Used in transfers.
     * @param operator Address that may be allowed to operate on tokens without being their owner.
     * @param owner Address of the current owner of a token.
     */
    error ERC1155MissingApprovalForAll(address operator, address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `approver` of a token to be approved. Used in approvals.
     * @param approver Address initiating an approval operation.
     */
    error ERC1155InvalidApprover(address approver);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates a failure with the `operator` to be approved. Used in approvals.
     * @param operator Address that may be allowed to operate on tokens without being their owner.
     */
    error ERC1155InvalidOperator(address operator);

    /**
     * @dev Indicates an array length mismatch between ids and values in a safeBatchTransferFrom operation.
     * Used in batch transfers.
     * @param idsLength Length of the array of token identifiers
     * @param valuesLength Length of the array of token amounts
     */
    error ERC1155InvalidArrayLength(uint256 idsLength, uint256 valuesLength);
}

File 5 of 30 : IERC5267.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (interfaces/IERC5267.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

interface IERC5267 {
    /**
     * @dev MAY be emitted to signal that the domain could have changed.
     */
    event EIP712DomainChanged();

    /**
     * @dev returns the fields and values that describe the domain separator used by this contract for EIP-712
     * signature.
     */
    function eip712Domain()
        external
        view
        returns (
            bytes1 fields,
            string memory name,
            string memory version,
            uint256 chainId,
            address verifyingContract,
            bytes32 salt,
            uint256[] memory extensions
        );
}

File 6 of 30 : IERC5805.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (interfaces/IERC5805.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {IVotes} from "../governance/utils/IVotes.sol";
import {IERC6372} from "./IERC6372.sol";

interface IERC5805 is IERC6372, IVotes {}

File 7 of 30 : IERC6372.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (interfaces/IERC6372.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

interface IERC6372 {
    /**
     * @dev Clock used for flagging checkpoints. Can be overridden to implement timestamp based checkpoints (and voting).
     */
    function clock() external view returns (uint48);

    /**
     * @dev Description of the clock
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function CLOCK_MODE() external view returns (string memory);
}

File 8 of 30 : ERC20.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/ERC20.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {IERC20} from "./IERC20.sol";
import {IERC20Metadata} from "./extensions/IERC20Metadata.sol";
import {Context} from "../../utils/Context.sol";
import {IERC20Errors} from "../../interfaces/draft-IERC6093.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC20} interface.
 *
 * This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
 * that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using {_mint}.
 *
 * TIP: For a detailed writeup see our guide
 * https://forum.openzeppelin.com/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226[How
 * to implement supply mechanisms].
 *
 * The default value of {decimals} is 18. To change this, you should override
 * this function so it returns a different value.
 *
 * We have followed general OpenZeppelin Contracts guidelines: functions revert
 * instead returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless
 * conventional and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20
 * applications.
 *
 * Additionally, an {Approval} event is emitted on calls to {transferFrom}.
 * This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
 * by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
 * these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
 */
abstract contract ERC20 is Context, IERC20, IERC20Metadata, IERC20Errors {
    mapping(address account => uint256) private _balances;

    mapping(address account => mapping(address spender => uint256)) private _allowances;

    uint256 private _totalSupply;

    string private _name;
    string private _symbol;

    /**
     * @dev Sets the values for {name} and {symbol}.
     *
     * All two of these values are immutable: they can only be set once during
     * construction.
     */
    constructor(string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() public view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token, usually a shorter version of the
     * name.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of decimals used to get its user representation.
     * For example, if `decimals` equals `2`, a balance of `505` tokens should
     * be displayed to a user as `5.05` (`505 / 10 ** 2`).
     *
     * Tokens usually opt for a value of 18, imitating the relationship between
     * Ether and Wei. This is the default value returned by this function, unless
     * it's overridden.
     *
     * NOTE: This information is only used for _display_ purposes: it in
     * no way affects any of the arithmetic of the contract, including
     * {IERC20-balanceOf} and {IERC20-transfer}.
     */
    function decimals() public view virtual returns (uint8) {
        return 18;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-totalSupply}.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _totalSupply;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _balances[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transfer}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - the caller must have a balance of at least `value`.
     */
    function transfer(address to, uint256 value) public virtual returns (bool) {
        address owner = _msgSender();
        _transfer(owner, to, value);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-allowance}.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _allowances[owner][spender];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * NOTE: If `value` is the maximum `uint256`, the allowance is not updated on
     * `transferFrom`. This is semantically equivalent to an infinite approval.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 value) public virtual returns (bool) {
        address owner = _msgSender();
        _approve(owner, spender, value);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transferFrom}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
     * required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of {ERC20}.
     *
     * NOTE: Does not update the allowance if the current allowance
     * is the maximum `uint256`.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `from` and `to` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `from` must have a balance of at least `value`.
     * - the caller must have allowance for ``from``'s tokens of at least
     * `value`.
     */
    function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 value) public virtual returns (bool) {
        address spender = _msgSender();
        _spendAllowance(from, spender, value);
        _transfer(from, to, value);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Moves a `value` amount of tokens from `from` to `to`.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to {transfer}, and can be used to
     * e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     *
     * NOTE: This function is not virtual, {_update} should be overridden instead.
     */
    function _transfer(address from, address to, uint256 value) internal {
        if (from == address(0)) {
            revert ERC20InvalidSender(address(0));
        }
        if (to == address(0)) {
            revert ERC20InvalidReceiver(address(0));
        }
        _update(from, to, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Transfers a `value` amount of tokens from `from` to `to`, or alternatively mints (or burns) if `from`
     * (or `to`) is the zero address. All customizations to transfers, mints, and burns should be done by overriding
     * this function.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function _update(address from, address to, uint256 value) internal virtual {
        if (from == address(0)) {
            // Overflow check required: The rest of the code assumes that totalSupply never overflows
            _totalSupply += value;
        } else {
            uint256 fromBalance = _balances[from];
            if (fromBalance < value) {
                revert ERC20InsufficientBalance(from, fromBalance, value);
            }
            unchecked {
                // Overflow not possible: value <= fromBalance <= totalSupply.
                _balances[from] = fromBalance - value;
            }
        }

        if (to == address(0)) {
            unchecked {
                // Overflow not possible: value <= totalSupply or value <= fromBalance <= totalSupply.
                _totalSupply -= value;
            }
        } else {
            unchecked {
                // Overflow not possible: balance + value is at most totalSupply, which we know fits into a uint256.
                _balances[to] += value;
            }
        }

        emit Transfer(from, to, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Creates a `value` amount of tokens and assigns them to `account`, by transferring it from address(0).
     * Relies on the `_update` mechanism
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `from` set to the zero address.
     *
     * NOTE: This function is not virtual, {_update} should be overridden instead.
     */
    function _mint(address account, uint256 value) internal {
        if (account == address(0)) {
            revert ERC20InvalidReceiver(address(0));
        }
        _update(address(0), account, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys a `value` amount of tokens from `account`, lowering the total supply.
     * Relies on the `_update` mechanism.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `to` set to the zero address.
     *
     * NOTE: This function is not virtual, {_update} should be overridden instead
     */
    function _burn(address account, uint256 value) internal {
        if (account == address(0)) {
            revert ERC20InvalidSender(address(0));
        }
        _update(account, address(0), value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `value` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner` s tokens.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
     * e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     *
     * Overrides to this logic should be done to the variant with an additional `bool emitEvent` argument.
     */
    function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 value) internal {
        _approve(owner, spender, value, true);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Variant of {_approve} with an optional flag to enable or disable the {Approval} event.
     *
     * By default (when calling {_approve}) the flag is set to true. On the other hand, approval changes made by
     * `_spendAllowance` during the `transferFrom` operation set the flag to false. This saves gas by not emitting any
     * `Approval` event during `transferFrom` operations.
     *
     * Anyone who wishes to continue emitting `Approval` events on the`transferFrom` operation can force the flag to
     * true using the following override:
     * ```
     * function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 value, bool) internal virtual override {
     *     super._approve(owner, spender, value, true);
     * }
     * ```
     *
     * Requirements are the same as {_approve}.
     */
    function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 value, bool emitEvent) internal virtual {
        if (owner == address(0)) {
            revert ERC20InvalidApprover(address(0));
        }
        if (spender == address(0)) {
            revert ERC20InvalidSpender(address(0));
        }
        _allowances[owner][spender] = value;
        if (emitEvent) {
            emit Approval(owner, spender, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Updates `owner` s allowance for `spender` based on spent `value`.
     *
     * Does not update the allowance value in case of infinite allowance.
     * Revert if not enough allowance is available.
     *
     * Does not emit an {Approval} event.
     */
    function _spendAllowance(address owner, address spender, uint256 value) internal virtual {
        uint256 currentAllowance = allowance(owner, spender);
        if (currentAllowance != type(uint256).max) {
            if (currentAllowance < value) {
                revert ERC20InsufficientAllowance(spender, currentAllowance, value);
            }
            unchecked {
                _approve(owner, spender, currentAllowance - value, false);
            }
        }
    }
}

File 9 of 30 : ERC20Burnable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Burnable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {ERC20} from "../ERC20.sol";
import {Context} from "../../../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Extension of {ERC20} that allows token holders to destroy both their own
 * tokens and those that they have an allowance for, in a way that can be
 * recognized off-chain (via event analysis).
 */
abstract contract ERC20Burnable is Context, ERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Destroys a `value` amount of tokens from the caller.
     *
     * See {ERC20-_burn}.
     */
    function burn(uint256 value) public virtual {
        _burn(_msgSender(), value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys a `value` amount of tokens from `account`, deducting from
     * the caller's allowance.
     *
     * See {ERC20-_burn} and {ERC20-allowance}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have allowance for ``accounts``'s tokens of at least
     * `value`.
     */
    function burnFrom(address account, uint256 value) public virtual {
        _spendAllowance(account, _msgSender(), value);
        _burn(account, value);
    }
}

File 10 of 30 : ERC20Pausable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Pausable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {ERC20} from "../ERC20.sol";
import {Pausable} from "../../../utils/Pausable.sol";

/**
 * @dev ERC20 token with pausable token transfers, minting and burning.
 *
 * Useful for scenarios such as preventing trades until the end of an evaluation
 * period, or having an emergency switch for freezing all token transfers in the
 * event of a large bug.
 *
 * IMPORTANT: This contract does not include public pause and unpause functions. In
 * addition to inheriting this contract, you must define both functions, invoking the
 * {Pausable-_pause} and {Pausable-_unpause} internal functions, with appropriate
 * access control, e.g. using {AccessControl} or {Ownable}. Not doing so will
 * make the contract pause mechanism of the contract unreachable, and thus unusable.
 */
abstract contract ERC20Pausable is ERC20, Pausable {
    /**
     * @dev See {ERC20-_update}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the contract must not be paused.
     */
    function _update(address from, address to, uint256 value) internal virtual override whenNotPaused {
        super._update(from, to, value);
    }
}

File 11 of 30 : ERC20Permit.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Permit.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {IERC20Permit} from "./IERC20Permit.sol";
import {ERC20} from "../ERC20.sol";
import {ECDSA} from "../../../utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol";
import {EIP712} from "../../../utils/cryptography/EIP712.sol";
import {Nonces} from "../../../utils/Nonces.sol";

/**
 * @dev Implementation of the ERC20 Permit extension allowing approvals to be made via signatures, as defined in
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612[EIP-2612].
 *
 * Adds the {permit} method, which can be used to change an account's ERC20 allowance (see {IERC20-allowance}) by
 * presenting a message signed by the account. By not relying on `{IERC20-approve}`, the token holder account doesn't
 * need to send a transaction, and thus is not required to hold Ether at all.
 */
abstract contract ERC20Permit is ERC20, IERC20Permit, EIP712, Nonces {
    bytes32 private constant PERMIT_TYPEHASH =
        keccak256("Permit(address owner,address spender,uint256 value,uint256 nonce,uint256 deadline)");

    /**
     * @dev Permit deadline has expired.
     */
    error ERC2612ExpiredSignature(uint256 deadline);

    /**
     * @dev Mismatched signature.
     */
    error ERC2612InvalidSigner(address signer, address owner);

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the {EIP712} domain separator using the `name` parameter, and setting `version` to `"1"`.
     *
     * It's a good idea to use the same `name` that is defined as the ERC20 token name.
     */
    constructor(string memory name) EIP712(name, "1") {}

    /**
     * @inheritdoc IERC20Permit
     */
    function permit(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 value,
        uint256 deadline,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) public virtual {
        if (block.timestamp > deadline) {
            revert ERC2612ExpiredSignature(deadline);
        }

        bytes32 structHash = keccak256(abi.encode(PERMIT_TYPEHASH, owner, spender, value, _useNonce(owner), deadline));

        bytes32 hash = _hashTypedDataV4(structHash);

        address signer = ECDSA.recover(hash, v, r, s);
        if (signer != owner) {
            revert ERC2612InvalidSigner(signer, owner);
        }

        _approve(owner, spender, value);
    }

    /**
     * @inheritdoc IERC20Permit
     */
    function nonces(address owner) public view virtual override(IERC20Permit, Nonces) returns (uint256) {
        return super.nonces(owner);
    }

    /**
     * @inheritdoc IERC20Permit
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view virtual returns (bytes32) {
        return _domainSeparatorV4();
    }
}

File 12 of 30 : ERC20Votes.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Votes.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {ERC20} from "../ERC20.sol";
import {Votes} from "../../../governance/utils/Votes.sol";
import {Checkpoints} from "../../../utils/structs/Checkpoints.sol";

/**
 * @dev Extension of ERC20 to support Compound-like voting and delegation. This version is more generic than Compound's,
 * and supports token supply up to 2^208^ - 1, while COMP is limited to 2^96^ - 1.
 *
 * NOTE: This contract does not provide interface compatibility with Compound's COMP token.
 *
 * This extension keeps a history (checkpoints) of each account's vote power. Vote power can be delegated either
 * by calling the {delegate} function directly, or by providing a signature to be used with {delegateBySig}. Voting
 * power can be queried through the public accessors {getVotes} and {getPastVotes}.
 *
 * By default, token balance does not account for voting power. This makes transfers cheaper. The downside is that it
 * requires users to delegate to themselves in order to activate checkpoints and have their voting power tracked.
 */
abstract contract ERC20Votes is ERC20, Votes {
    /**
     * @dev Total supply cap has been exceeded, introducing a risk of votes overflowing.
     */
    error ERC20ExceededSafeSupply(uint256 increasedSupply, uint256 cap);

    /**
     * @dev Maximum token supply. Defaults to `type(uint208).max` (2^208^ - 1).
     *
     * This maximum is enforced in {_update}. It limits the total supply of the token, which is otherwise a uint256,
     * so that checkpoints can be stored in the Trace208 structure used by {{Votes}}. Increasing this value will not
     * remove the underlying limitation, and will cause {_update} to fail because of a math overflow in
     * {_transferVotingUnits}. An override could be used to further restrict the total supply (to a lower value) if
     * additional logic requires it. When resolving override conflicts on this function, the minimum should be
     * returned.
     */
    function _maxSupply() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return type(uint208).max;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Move voting power when tokens are transferred.
     *
     * Emits a {IVotes-DelegateVotesChanged} event.
     */
    function _update(address from, address to, uint256 value) internal virtual override {
        super._update(from, to, value);
        if (from == address(0)) {
            uint256 supply = totalSupply();
            uint256 cap = _maxSupply();
            if (supply > cap) {
                revert ERC20ExceededSafeSupply(supply, cap);
            }
        }
        _transferVotingUnits(from, to, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the voting units of an `account`.
     *
     * WARNING: Overriding this function may compromise the internal vote accounting.
     * `ERC20Votes` assumes tokens map to voting units 1:1 and this is not easy to change.
     */
    function _getVotingUnits(address account) internal view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return balanceOf(account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get number of checkpoints for `account`.
     */
    function numCheckpoints(address account) public view virtual returns (uint32) {
        return _numCheckpoints(account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get the `pos`-th checkpoint for `account`.
     */
    function checkpoints(address account, uint32 pos) public view virtual returns (Checkpoints.Checkpoint208 memory) {
        return _checkpoints(account, pos);
    }
}

File 13 of 30 : IERC20Metadata.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/extensions/IERC20Metadata.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {IERC20} from "../IERC20.sol";

/**
 * @dev Interface for the optional metadata functions from the ERC20 standard.
 */
interface IERC20Metadata is IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the decimals places of the token.
     */
    function decimals() external view returns (uint8);
}

File 14 of 30 : IERC20Permit.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/extensions/IERC20Permit.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 Permit extension allowing approvals to be made via signatures, as defined in
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612[EIP-2612].
 *
 * Adds the {permit} method, which can be used to change an account's ERC20 allowance (see {IERC20-allowance}) by
 * presenting a message signed by the account. By not relying on {IERC20-approve}, the token holder account doesn't
 * need to send a transaction, and thus is not required to hold Ether at all.
 *
 * ==== Security Considerations
 *
 * There are two important considerations concerning the use of `permit`. The first is that a valid permit signature
 * expresses an allowance, and it should not be assumed to convey additional meaning. In particular, it should not be
 * considered as an intention to spend the allowance in any specific way. The second is that because permits have
 * built-in replay protection and can be submitted by anyone, they can be frontrun. A protocol that uses permits should
 * take this into consideration and allow a `permit` call to fail. Combining these two aspects, a pattern that may be
 * generally recommended is:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function doThingWithPermit(..., uint256 value, uint256 deadline, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) public {
 *     try token.permit(msg.sender, address(this), value, deadline, v, r, s) {} catch {}
 *     doThing(..., value);
 * }
 *
 * function doThing(..., uint256 value) public {
 *     token.safeTransferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), value);
 *     ...
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Observe that: 1) `msg.sender` is used as the owner, leaving no ambiguity as to the signer intent, and 2) the use of
 * `try/catch` allows the permit to fail and makes the code tolerant to frontrunning. (See also
 * {SafeERC20-safeTransferFrom}).
 *
 * Additionally, note that smart contract wallets (such as Argent or Safe) are not able to produce permit signatures, so
 * contracts should have entry points that don't rely on permit.
 */
interface IERC20Permit {
    /**
     * @dev Sets `value` as the allowance of `spender` over ``owner``'s tokens,
     * given ``owner``'s signed approval.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: The same issues {IERC20-approve} has related to transaction
     * ordering also apply here.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `deadline` must be a timestamp in the future.
     * - `v`, `r` and `s` must be a valid `secp256k1` signature from `owner`
     * over the EIP712-formatted function arguments.
     * - the signature must use ``owner``'s current nonce (see {nonces}).
     *
     * For more information on the signature format, see the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612#specification[relevant EIP
     * section].
     *
     * CAUTION: See Security Considerations above.
     */
    function permit(
        address owner,
        address spender,
        uint256 value,
        uint256 deadline,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the current nonce for `owner`. This value must be
     * included whenever a signature is generated for {permit}.
     *
     * Every successful call to {permit} increases ``owner``'s nonce by one. This
     * prevents a signature from being used multiple times.
     */
    function nonces(address owner) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator used in the encoding of the signature for {permit}, as defined by {EIP712}.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view returns (bytes32);
}

File 15 of 30 : IERC20.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (token/ERC20/IERC20.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves a `value` amount of tokens from the caller's account to `to`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address to, uint256 value) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets a `value` amount of tokens as the allowance of `spender` over the
     * caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 value) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves a `value` amount of tokens from `from` to `to` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `value` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(address from, address to, uint256 value) external returns (bool);
}

File 16 of 30 : Context.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.1) (utils/Context.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        return msg.data;
    }

    function _contextSuffixLength() internal view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return 0;
    }
}

File 17 of 30 : ECDSA.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations.
 *
 * These functions can be used to verify that a message was signed by the holder
 * of the private keys of a given address.
 */
library ECDSA {
    enum RecoverError {
        NoError,
        InvalidSignature,
        InvalidSignatureLength,
        InvalidSignatureS
    }

    /**
     * @dev The signature derives the `address(0)`.
     */
    error ECDSAInvalidSignature();

    /**
     * @dev The signature has an invalid length.
     */
    error ECDSAInvalidSignatureLength(uint256 length);

    /**
     * @dev The signature has an S value that is in the upper half order.
     */
    error ECDSAInvalidSignatureS(bytes32 s);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with `signature` or an error. This will not
     * return address(0) without also returning an error description. Errors are documented using an enum (error type)
     * and a bytes32 providing additional information about the error.
     *
     * If no error is returned, then the address can be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM precompile allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {MessageHashUtils-toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     *
     * Documentation for signature generation:
     * - with https://web3js.readthedocs.io/en/v1.3.4/web3-eth-accounts.html#sign[Web3.js]
     * - with https://docs.ethers.io/v5/api/signer/#Signer-signMessage[ethers]
     */
    function tryRecover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError, bytes32) {
        if (signature.length == 65) {
            bytes32 r;
            bytes32 s;
            uint8 v;
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                v := byte(0, mload(add(signature, 0x60)))
            }
            return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        } else {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength, bytes32(signature.length));
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature`. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM precompile allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {MessageHashUtils-toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error, bytes32 errorArg) = tryRecover(hash, signature);
        _throwError(error, errorArg);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `r` and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     *
     * See https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098[EIP-2098 short signatures]
     */
    function tryRecover(bytes32 hash, bytes32 r, bytes32 vs) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError, bytes32) {
        unchecked {
            bytes32 s = vs & bytes32(0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff);
            // We do not check for an overflow here since the shift operation results in 0 or 1.
            uint8 v = uint8((uint256(vs) >> 255) + 27);
            return tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `r and `vs` short-signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes32 r, bytes32 vs) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error, bytes32 errorArg) = tryRecover(hash, r, vs);
        _throwError(error, errorArg);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-tryRecover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function tryRecover(
        bytes32 hash,
        uint8 v,
        bytes32 r,
        bytes32 s
    ) internal pure returns (address, RecoverError, bytes32) {
        // EIP-2 still allows signature malleability for ecrecover(). Remove this possibility and make the signature
        // unique. Appendix F in the Ethereum Yellow paper (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf), defines
        // the valid range for s in (301): 0 < s < secp256k1n ÷ 2 + 1, and for v in (302): v ∈ {27, 28}. Most
        // signatures from current libraries generate a unique signature with an s-value in the lower half order.
        //
        // If your library generates malleable signatures, such as s-values in the upper range, calculate a new s-value
        // with 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEBAAEDCE6AF48A03BBFD25E8CD0364141 - s1 and flip v from 27 to 28 or
        // vice versa. If your library also generates signatures with 0/1 for v instead 27/28, add 27 to v to accept
        // these malleable signatures as well.
        if (uint256(s) > 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF5D576E7357A4501DDFE92F46681B20A0) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS, s);
        }

        // If the signature is valid (and not malleable), return the signer address
        address signer = ecrecover(hash, v, r, s);
        if (signer == address(0)) {
            return (address(0), RecoverError.InvalidSignature, bytes32(0));
        }

        return (signer, RecoverError.NoError, bytes32(0));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) internal pure returns (address) {
        (address recovered, RecoverError error, bytes32 errorArg) = tryRecover(hash, v, r, s);
        _throwError(error, errorArg);
        return recovered;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Optionally reverts with the corresponding custom error according to the `error` argument provided.
     */
    function _throwError(RecoverError error, bytes32 errorArg) private pure {
        if (error == RecoverError.NoError) {
            return; // no error: do nothing
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignature) {
            revert ECDSAInvalidSignature();
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureLength) {
            revert ECDSAInvalidSignatureLength(uint256(errorArg));
        } else if (error == RecoverError.InvalidSignatureS) {
            revert ECDSAInvalidSignatureS(errorArg);
        }
    }
}

File 18 of 30 : EIP712.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/cryptography/EIP712.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {MessageHashUtils} from "./MessageHashUtils.sol";
import {ShortStrings, ShortString} from "../ShortStrings.sol";
import {IERC5267} from "../../interfaces/IERC5267.sol";

/**
 * @dev https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[EIP 712] is a standard for hashing and signing of typed structured data.
 *
 * The encoding scheme specified in the EIP requires a domain separator and a hash of the typed structured data, whose
 * encoding is very generic and therefore its implementation in Solidity is not feasible, thus this contract
 * does not implement the encoding itself. Protocols need to implement the type-specific encoding they need in order to
 * produce the hash of their typed data using a combination of `abi.encode` and `keccak256`.
 *
 * This contract implements the EIP 712 domain separator ({_domainSeparatorV4}) that is used as part of the encoding
 * scheme, and the final step of the encoding to obtain the message digest that is then signed via ECDSA
 * ({_hashTypedDataV4}).
 *
 * The implementation of the domain separator was designed to be as efficient as possible while still properly updating
 * the chain id to protect against replay attacks on an eventual fork of the chain.
 *
 * NOTE: This contract implements the version of the encoding known as "v4", as implemented by the JSON RPC method
 * https://docs.metamask.io/guide/signing-data.html[`eth_signTypedDataV4` in MetaMask].
 *
 * NOTE: In the upgradeable version of this contract, the cached values will correspond to the address, and the domain
 * separator of the implementation contract. This will cause the {_domainSeparatorV4} function to always rebuild the
 * separator from the immutable values, which is cheaper than accessing a cached version in cold storage.
 *
 * @custom:oz-upgrades-unsafe-allow state-variable-immutable
 */
abstract contract EIP712 is IERC5267 {
    using ShortStrings for *;

    bytes32 private constant TYPE_HASH =
        keccak256("EIP712Domain(string name,string version,uint256 chainId,address verifyingContract)");

    // Cache the domain separator as an immutable value, but also store the chain id that it corresponds to, in order to
    // invalidate the cached domain separator if the chain id changes.
    bytes32 private immutable _cachedDomainSeparator;
    uint256 private immutable _cachedChainId;
    address private immutable _cachedThis;

    bytes32 private immutable _hashedName;
    bytes32 private immutable _hashedVersion;

    ShortString private immutable _name;
    ShortString private immutable _version;
    string private _nameFallback;
    string private _versionFallback;

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the domain separator and parameter caches.
     *
     * The meaning of `name` and `version` is specified in
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-domainseparator[EIP 712]:
     *
     * - `name`: the user readable name of the signing domain, i.e. the name of the DApp or the protocol.
     * - `version`: the current major version of the signing domain.
     *
     * NOTE: These parameters cannot be changed except through a xref:learn::upgrading-smart-contracts.adoc[smart
     * contract upgrade].
     */
    constructor(string memory name, string memory version) {
        _name = name.toShortStringWithFallback(_nameFallback);
        _version = version.toShortStringWithFallback(_versionFallback);
        _hashedName = keccak256(bytes(name));
        _hashedVersion = keccak256(bytes(version));

        _cachedChainId = block.chainid;
        _cachedDomainSeparator = _buildDomainSeparator();
        _cachedThis = address(this);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator for the current chain.
     */
    function _domainSeparatorV4() internal view returns (bytes32) {
        if (address(this) == _cachedThis && block.chainid == _cachedChainId) {
            return _cachedDomainSeparator;
        } else {
            return _buildDomainSeparator();
        }
    }

    function _buildDomainSeparator() private view returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encode(TYPE_HASH, _hashedName, _hashedVersion, block.chainid, address(this)));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Given an already https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-hashstruct[hashed struct], this
     * function returns the hash of the fully encoded EIP712 message for this domain.
     *
     * This hash can be used together with {ECDSA-recover} to obtain the signer of a message. For example:
     *
     * ```solidity
     * bytes32 digest = _hashTypedDataV4(keccak256(abi.encode(
     *     keccak256("Mail(address to,string contents)"),
     *     mailTo,
     *     keccak256(bytes(mailContents))
     * )));
     * address signer = ECDSA.recover(digest, signature);
     * ```
     */
    function _hashTypedDataV4(bytes32 structHash) internal view virtual returns (bytes32) {
        return MessageHashUtils.toTypedDataHash(_domainSeparatorV4(), structHash);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC-5267}.
     */
    function eip712Domain()
        public
        view
        virtual
        returns (
            bytes1 fields,
            string memory name,
            string memory version,
            uint256 chainId,
            address verifyingContract,
            bytes32 salt,
            uint256[] memory extensions
        )
    {
        return (
            hex"0f", // 01111
            _EIP712Name(),
            _EIP712Version(),
            block.chainid,
            address(this),
            bytes32(0),
            new uint256[](0)
        );
    }

    /**
     * @dev The name parameter for the EIP712 domain.
     *
     * NOTE: By default this function reads _name which is an immutable value.
     * It only reads from storage if necessary (in case the value is too large to fit in a ShortString).
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function _EIP712Name() internal view returns (string memory) {
        return _name.toStringWithFallback(_nameFallback);
    }

    /**
     * @dev The version parameter for the EIP712 domain.
     *
     * NOTE: By default this function reads _version which is an immutable value.
     * It only reads from storage if necessary (in case the value is too large to fit in a ShortString).
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function _EIP712Version() internal view returns (string memory) {
        return _version.toStringWithFallback(_versionFallback);
    }
}

File 19 of 30 : MessageHashUtils.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/cryptography/MessageHashUtils.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {Strings} from "../Strings.sol";

/**
 * @dev Signature message hash utilities for producing digests to be consumed by {ECDSA} recovery or signing.
 *
 * The library provides methods for generating a hash of a message that conforms to the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-191[EIP 191] and https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[EIP 712]
 * specifications.
 */
library MessageHashUtils {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the keccak256 digest of an EIP-191 signed data with version
     * `0x45` (`personal_sign` messages).
     *
     * The digest is calculated by prefixing a bytes32 `messageHash` with
     * `"\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32"` and hashing the result. It corresponds with the
     * hash signed when using the https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`] JSON-RPC method.
     *
     * NOTE: The `messageHash` parameter is intended to be the result of hashing a raw message with
     * keccak256, although any bytes32 value can be safely used because the final digest will
     * be re-hashed.
     *
     * See {ECDSA-recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 messageHash) internal pure returns (bytes32 digest) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            mstore(0x00, "\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32") // 32 is the bytes-length of messageHash
            mstore(0x1c, messageHash) // 0x1c (28) is the length of the prefix
            digest := keccak256(0x00, 0x3c) // 0x3c is the length of the prefix (0x1c) + messageHash (0x20)
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the keccak256 digest of an EIP-191 signed data with version
     * `0x45` (`personal_sign` messages).
     *
     * The digest is calculated by prefixing an arbitrary `message` with
     * `"\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n" + len(message)` and hashing the result. It corresponds with the
     * hash signed when using the https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`] JSON-RPC method.
     *
     * See {ECDSA-recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes memory message) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return
            keccak256(bytes.concat("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n", bytes(Strings.toString(message.length)), message));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the keccak256 digest of an EIP-191 signed data with version
     * `0x00` (data with intended validator).
     *
     * The digest is calculated by prefixing an arbitrary `data` with `"\x19\x00"` and the intended
     * `validator` address. Then hashing the result.
     *
     * See {ECDSA-recover}.
     */
    function toDataWithIntendedValidatorHash(address validator, bytes memory data) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked(hex"19_00", validator, data));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the keccak256 digest of an EIP-712 typed data (EIP-191 version `0x01`).
     *
     * The digest is calculated from a `domainSeparator` and a `structHash`, by prefixing them with
     * `\x19\x01` and hashing the result. It corresponds to the hash signed by the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[`eth_signTypedData`] JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-712.
     *
     * See {ECDSA-recover}.
     */
    function toTypedDataHash(bytes32 domainSeparator, bytes32 structHash) internal pure returns (bytes32 digest) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            let ptr := mload(0x40)
            mstore(ptr, hex"19_01")
            mstore(add(ptr, 0x02), domainSeparator)
            mstore(add(ptr, 0x22), structHash)
            digest := keccak256(ptr, 0x42)
        }
    }
}

File 20 of 30 : Math.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/math/Math.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Standard math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library Math {
    /**
     * @dev Muldiv operation overflow.
     */
    error MathOverflowedMulDiv();

    enum Rounding {
        Floor, // Toward negative infinity
        Ceil, // Toward positive infinity
        Trunc, // Toward zero
        Expand // Away from zero
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     */
    function tryAdd(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 c = a + b;
            if (c < a) return (false, 0);
            return (true, c);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     */
    function trySub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b > a) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a - b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     */
    function tryMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            // Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
            // benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
            // See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/pull/522
            if (a == 0) return (true, 0);
            uint256 c = a * b;
            if (c / a != b) return (false, 0);
            return (true, c);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the division of two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
     */
    function tryDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a / b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
     */
    function tryMod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a % b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two numbers.
     */
    function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a > b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two numbers.
     */
    function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two numbers. The result is rounded towards
     * zero.
     */
    function average(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b) / 2 can overflow.
        return (a & b) + (a ^ b) / 2;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the ceiling of the division of two numbers.
     *
     * This differs from standard division with `/` in that it rounds towards infinity instead
     * of rounding towards zero.
     */
    function ceilDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (b == 0) {
            // Guarantee the same behavior as in a regular Solidity division.
            return a / b;
        }

        // (a + b - 1) / b can overflow on addition, so we distribute.
        return a == 0 ? 0 : (a - 1) / b + 1;
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates floor(x * y / denominator) with full precision. Throws if result overflows a uint256 or
     * denominator == 0.
     * @dev Original credit to Remco Bloemen under MIT license (https://xn--2-umb.com/21/muldiv) with further edits by
     * Uniswap Labs also under MIT license.
     */
    function mulDiv(uint256 x, uint256 y, uint256 denominator) internal pure returns (uint256 result) {
        unchecked {
            // 512-bit multiply [prod1 prod0] = x * y. Compute the product mod 2^256 and mod 2^256 - 1, then use
            // use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to reconstruct the 512 bit result. The result is stored in two 256
            // variables such that product = prod1 * 2^256 + prod0.
            uint256 prod0 = x * y; // Least significant 256 bits of the product
            uint256 prod1; // Most significant 256 bits of the product
            assembly {
                let mm := mulmod(x, y, not(0))
                prod1 := sub(sub(mm, prod0), lt(mm, prod0))
            }

            // Handle non-overflow cases, 256 by 256 division.
            if (prod1 == 0) {
                // Solidity will revert if denominator == 0, unlike the div opcode on its own.
                // The surrounding unchecked block does not change this fact.
                // See https://docs.soliditylang.org/en/latest/control-structures.html#checked-or-unchecked-arithmetic.
                return prod0 / denominator;
            }

            // Make sure the result is less than 2^256. Also prevents denominator == 0.
            if (denominator <= prod1) {
                revert MathOverflowedMulDiv();
            }

            ///////////////////////////////////////////////
            // 512 by 256 division.
            ///////////////////////////////////////////////

            // Make division exact by subtracting the remainder from [prod1 prod0].
            uint256 remainder;
            assembly {
                // Compute remainder using mulmod.
                remainder := mulmod(x, y, denominator)

                // Subtract 256 bit number from 512 bit number.
                prod1 := sub(prod1, gt(remainder, prod0))
                prod0 := sub(prod0, remainder)
            }

            // Factor powers of two out of denominator and compute largest power of two divisor of denominator.
            // Always >= 1. See https://cs.stackexchange.com/q/138556/92363.

            uint256 twos = denominator & (0 - denominator);
            assembly {
                // Divide denominator by twos.
                denominator := div(denominator, twos)

                // Divide [prod1 prod0] by twos.
                prod0 := div(prod0, twos)

                // Flip twos such that it is 2^256 / twos. If twos is zero, then it becomes one.
                twos := add(div(sub(0, twos), twos), 1)
            }

            // Shift in bits from prod1 into prod0.
            prod0 |= prod1 * twos;

            // Invert denominator mod 2^256. Now that denominator is an odd number, it has an inverse modulo 2^256 such
            // that denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^256. Compute the inverse by starting with a seed that is correct for
            // four bits. That is, denominator * inv = 1 mod 2^4.
            uint256 inverse = (3 * denominator) ^ 2;

            // Use the Newton-Raphson iteration to improve the precision. Thanks to Hensel's lifting lemma, this also
            // works in modular arithmetic, doubling the correct bits in each step.
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^8
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^16
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^32
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^64
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^128
            inverse *= 2 - denominator * inverse; // inverse mod 2^256

            // Because the division is now exact we can divide by multiplying with the modular inverse of denominator.
            // This will give us the correct result modulo 2^256. Since the preconditions guarantee that the outcome is
            // less than 2^256, this is the final result. We don't need to compute the high bits of the result and prod1
            // is no longer required.
            result = prod0 * inverse;
            return result;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates x * y / denominator with full precision, following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function mulDiv(uint256 x, uint256 y, uint256 denominator, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = mulDiv(x, y, denominator);
        if (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && mulmod(x, y, denominator) > 0) {
            result += 1;
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the square root of a number. If the number is not a perfect square, the value is rounded
     * towards zero.
     *
     * Inspired by Henry S. Warren, Jr.'s "Hacker's Delight" (Chapter 11).
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (a == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        // For our first guess, we get the biggest power of 2 which is smaller than the square root of the target.
        //
        // We know that the "msb" (most significant bit) of our target number `a` is a power of 2 such that we have
        // `msb(a) <= a < 2*msb(a)`. This value can be written `msb(a)=2**k` with `k=log2(a)`.
        //
        // This can be rewritten `2**log2(a) <= a < 2**(log2(a) + 1)`
        // → `sqrt(2**k) <= sqrt(a) < sqrt(2**(k+1))`
        // → `2**(k/2) <= sqrt(a) < 2**((k+1)/2) <= 2**(k/2 + 1)`
        //
        // Consequently, `2**(log2(a) / 2)` is a good first approximation of `sqrt(a)` with at least 1 correct bit.
        uint256 result = 1 << (log2(a) >> 1);

        // At this point `result` is an estimation with one bit of precision. We know the true value is a uint128,
        // since it is the square root of a uint256. Newton's method converges quadratically (precision doubles at
        // every iteration). We thus need at most 7 iteration to turn our partial result with one bit of precision
        // into the expected uint128 result.
        unchecked {
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            result = (result + a / result) >> 1;
            return min(result, a / result);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @notice Calculates sqrt(a), following the selected rounding direction.
     */
    function sqrt(uint256 a, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = sqrt(a);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && result * result < a ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2 of a positive value rounded towards zero.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 128;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                value >>= 8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 4 > 0) {
                value >>= 4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 2 > 0) {
                value >>= 2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 1 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 2, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log2(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log2(value);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && 1 << result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10 of a positive value rounded towards zero.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >= 10 ** 64) {
                value /= 10 ** 64;
                result += 64;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 32) {
                value /= 10 ** 32;
                result += 32;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 16) {
                value /= 10 ** 16;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 8) {
                value /= 10 ** 8;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 4) {
                value /= 10 ** 4;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 2) {
                value /= 10 ** 2;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >= 10 ** 1) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 10, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log10(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log10(value);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && 10 ** result < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 256 of a positive value rounded towards zero.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     *
     * Adding one to the result gives the number of pairs of hex symbols needed to represent `value` as a hex string.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = 0;
        unchecked {
            if (value >> 128 > 0) {
                value >>= 128;
                result += 16;
            }
            if (value >> 64 > 0) {
                value >>= 64;
                result += 8;
            }
            if (value >> 32 > 0) {
                value >>= 32;
                result += 4;
            }
            if (value >> 16 > 0) {
                value >>= 16;
                result += 2;
            }
            if (value >> 8 > 0) {
                result += 1;
            }
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the log in base 256, following the selected rounding direction, of a positive value.
     * Returns 0 if given 0.
     */
    function log256(uint256 value, Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 result = log256(value);
            return result + (unsignedRoundsUp(rounding) && 1 << (result << 3) < value ? 1 : 0);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether a provided rounding mode is considered rounding up for unsigned integers.
     */
    function unsignedRoundsUp(Rounding rounding) internal pure returns (bool) {
        return uint8(rounding) % 2 == 1;
    }
}

File 21 of 30 : SafeCast.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/math/SafeCast.sol)
// This file was procedurally generated from scripts/generate/templates/SafeCast.js.

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's uintXX/intXX casting operators with added overflow
 * checks.
 *
 * Downcasting from uint256/int256 in Solidity does not revert on overflow. This can
 * easily result in undesired exploitation or bugs, since developers usually
 * assume that overflows raise errors. `SafeCast` restores this intuition by
 * reverting the transaction when such an operation overflows.
 *
 * Using this library instead of the unchecked operations eliminates an entire
 * class of bugs, so it's recommended to use it always.
 */
library SafeCast {
    /**
     * @dev Value doesn't fit in an uint of `bits` size.
     */
    error SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(uint8 bits, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev An int value doesn't fit in an uint of `bits` size.
     */
    error SafeCastOverflowedIntToUint(int256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Value doesn't fit in an int of `bits` size.
     */
    error SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(uint8 bits, int256 value);

    /**
     * @dev An uint value doesn't fit in an int of `bits` size.
     */
    error SafeCastOverflowedUintToInt(uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint248 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint248).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint248` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 248 bits
     */
    function toUint248(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint248) {
        if (value > type(uint248).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(248, value);
        }
        return uint248(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint240 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint240).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint240` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 240 bits
     */
    function toUint240(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint240) {
        if (value > type(uint240).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(240, value);
        }
        return uint240(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint232 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint232).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint232` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 232 bits
     */
    function toUint232(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint232) {
        if (value > type(uint232).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(232, value);
        }
        return uint232(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint224 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint224).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint224` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 224 bits
     */
    function toUint224(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint224) {
        if (value > type(uint224).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(224, value);
        }
        return uint224(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint216 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint216).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint216` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 216 bits
     */
    function toUint216(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint216) {
        if (value > type(uint216).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(216, value);
        }
        return uint216(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint208 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint208).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint208` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 208 bits
     */
    function toUint208(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint208) {
        if (value > type(uint208).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(208, value);
        }
        return uint208(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint200 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint200).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint200` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 200 bits
     */
    function toUint200(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint200) {
        if (value > type(uint200).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(200, value);
        }
        return uint200(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint192 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint192).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint192` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 192 bits
     */
    function toUint192(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint192) {
        if (value > type(uint192).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(192, value);
        }
        return uint192(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint184 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint184).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint184` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 184 bits
     */
    function toUint184(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint184) {
        if (value > type(uint184).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(184, value);
        }
        return uint184(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint176 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint176).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint176` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 176 bits
     */
    function toUint176(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint176) {
        if (value > type(uint176).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(176, value);
        }
        return uint176(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint168 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint168).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint168` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 168 bits
     */
    function toUint168(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint168) {
        if (value > type(uint168).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(168, value);
        }
        return uint168(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint160 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint160).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint160` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 160 bits
     */
    function toUint160(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint160) {
        if (value > type(uint160).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(160, value);
        }
        return uint160(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint152 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint152).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint152` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 152 bits
     */
    function toUint152(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint152) {
        if (value > type(uint152).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(152, value);
        }
        return uint152(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint144 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint144).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint144` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 144 bits
     */
    function toUint144(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint144) {
        if (value > type(uint144).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(144, value);
        }
        return uint144(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint136 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint136).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint136` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 136 bits
     */
    function toUint136(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint136) {
        if (value > type(uint136).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(136, value);
        }
        return uint136(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint128 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint128).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint128` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 128 bits
     */
    function toUint128(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint128) {
        if (value > type(uint128).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(128, value);
        }
        return uint128(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint120 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint120).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint120` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 120 bits
     */
    function toUint120(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint120) {
        if (value > type(uint120).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(120, value);
        }
        return uint120(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint112 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint112).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint112` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 112 bits
     */
    function toUint112(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint112) {
        if (value > type(uint112).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(112, value);
        }
        return uint112(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint104 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint104).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint104` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 104 bits
     */
    function toUint104(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint104) {
        if (value > type(uint104).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(104, value);
        }
        return uint104(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint96 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint96).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint96` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 96 bits
     */
    function toUint96(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint96) {
        if (value > type(uint96).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(96, value);
        }
        return uint96(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint88 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint88).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint88` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 88 bits
     */
    function toUint88(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint88) {
        if (value > type(uint88).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(88, value);
        }
        return uint88(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint80 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint80).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint80` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 80 bits
     */
    function toUint80(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint80) {
        if (value > type(uint80).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(80, value);
        }
        return uint80(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint72 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint72).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint72` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 72 bits
     */
    function toUint72(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint72) {
        if (value > type(uint72).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(72, value);
        }
        return uint72(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint64 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint64).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint64` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 64 bits
     */
    function toUint64(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint64) {
        if (value > type(uint64).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(64, value);
        }
        return uint64(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint56 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint56).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint56` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 56 bits
     */
    function toUint56(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint56) {
        if (value > type(uint56).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(56, value);
        }
        return uint56(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint48 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint48).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint48` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 48 bits
     */
    function toUint48(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint48) {
        if (value > type(uint48).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(48, value);
        }
        return uint48(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint40 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint40).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint40` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 40 bits
     */
    function toUint40(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint40) {
        if (value > type(uint40).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(40, value);
        }
        return uint40(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint32 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint32).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint32` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 32 bits
     */
    function toUint32(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint32) {
        if (value > type(uint32).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(32, value);
        }
        return uint32(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint24 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint24).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint24` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 24 bits
     */
    function toUint24(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint24) {
        if (value > type(uint24).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(24, value);
        }
        return uint24(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint16 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint16).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint16` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 16 bits
     */
    function toUint16(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint16) {
        if (value > type(uint16).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(16, value);
        }
        return uint16(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted uint8 from uint256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is greater than largest uint8).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `uint8` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 8 bits
     */
    function toUint8(uint256 value) internal pure returns (uint8) {
        if (value > type(uint8).max) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintDowncast(8, value);
        }
        return uint8(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a signed int256 into an unsigned uint256.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must be greater than or equal to 0.
     */
    function toUint256(int256 value) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        if (value < 0) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntToUint(value);
        }
        return uint256(value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int248 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int248 or
     * greater than largest int248).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int248` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 248 bits
     */
    function toInt248(int256 value) internal pure returns (int248 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int248(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(248, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int240 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int240 or
     * greater than largest int240).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int240` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 240 bits
     */
    function toInt240(int256 value) internal pure returns (int240 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int240(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(240, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int232 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int232 or
     * greater than largest int232).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int232` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 232 bits
     */
    function toInt232(int256 value) internal pure returns (int232 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int232(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(232, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int224 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int224 or
     * greater than largest int224).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int224` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 224 bits
     */
    function toInt224(int256 value) internal pure returns (int224 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int224(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(224, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int216 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int216 or
     * greater than largest int216).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int216` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 216 bits
     */
    function toInt216(int256 value) internal pure returns (int216 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int216(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(216, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int208 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int208 or
     * greater than largest int208).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int208` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 208 bits
     */
    function toInt208(int256 value) internal pure returns (int208 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int208(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(208, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int200 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int200 or
     * greater than largest int200).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int200` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 200 bits
     */
    function toInt200(int256 value) internal pure returns (int200 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int200(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(200, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int192 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int192 or
     * greater than largest int192).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int192` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 192 bits
     */
    function toInt192(int256 value) internal pure returns (int192 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int192(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(192, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int184 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int184 or
     * greater than largest int184).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int184` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 184 bits
     */
    function toInt184(int256 value) internal pure returns (int184 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int184(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(184, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int176 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int176 or
     * greater than largest int176).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int176` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 176 bits
     */
    function toInt176(int256 value) internal pure returns (int176 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int176(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(176, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int168 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int168 or
     * greater than largest int168).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int168` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 168 bits
     */
    function toInt168(int256 value) internal pure returns (int168 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int168(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(168, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int160 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int160 or
     * greater than largest int160).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int160` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 160 bits
     */
    function toInt160(int256 value) internal pure returns (int160 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int160(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(160, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int152 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int152 or
     * greater than largest int152).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int152` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 152 bits
     */
    function toInt152(int256 value) internal pure returns (int152 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int152(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(152, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int144 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int144 or
     * greater than largest int144).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int144` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 144 bits
     */
    function toInt144(int256 value) internal pure returns (int144 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int144(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(144, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int136 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int136 or
     * greater than largest int136).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int136` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 136 bits
     */
    function toInt136(int256 value) internal pure returns (int136 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int136(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(136, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int128 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int128 or
     * greater than largest int128).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int128` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 128 bits
     */
    function toInt128(int256 value) internal pure returns (int128 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int128(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(128, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int120 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int120 or
     * greater than largest int120).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int120` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 120 bits
     */
    function toInt120(int256 value) internal pure returns (int120 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int120(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(120, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int112 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int112 or
     * greater than largest int112).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int112` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 112 bits
     */
    function toInt112(int256 value) internal pure returns (int112 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int112(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(112, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int104 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int104 or
     * greater than largest int104).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int104` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 104 bits
     */
    function toInt104(int256 value) internal pure returns (int104 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int104(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(104, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int96 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int96 or
     * greater than largest int96).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int96` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 96 bits
     */
    function toInt96(int256 value) internal pure returns (int96 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int96(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(96, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int88 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int88 or
     * greater than largest int88).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int88` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 88 bits
     */
    function toInt88(int256 value) internal pure returns (int88 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int88(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(88, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int80 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int80 or
     * greater than largest int80).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int80` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 80 bits
     */
    function toInt80(int256 value) internal pure returns (int80 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int80(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(80, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int72 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int72 or
     * greater than largest int72).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int72` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 72 bits
     */
    function toInt72(int256 value) internal pure returns (int72 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int72(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(72, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int64 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int64 or
     * greater than largest int64).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int64` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 64 bits
     */
    function toInt64(int256 value) internal pure returns (int64 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int64(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(64, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int56 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int56 or
     * greater than largest int56).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int56` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 56 bits
     */
    function toInt56(int256 value) internal pure returns (int56 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int56(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(56, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int48 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int48 or
     * greater than largest int48).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int48` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 48 bits
     */
    function toInt48(int256 value) internal pure returns (int48 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int48(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(48, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int40 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int40 or
     * greater than largest int40).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int40` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 40 bits
     */
    function toInt40(int256 value) internal pure returns (int40 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int40(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(40, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int32 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int32 or
     * greater than largest int32).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int32` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 32 bits
     */
    function toInt32(int256 value) internal pure returns (int32 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int32(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(32, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int24 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int24 or
     * greater than largest int24).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int24` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 24 bits
     */
    function toInt24(int256 value) internal pure returns (int24 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int24(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(24, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int16 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int16 or
     * greater than largest int16).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int16` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 16 bits
     */
    function toInt16(int256 value) internal pure returns (int16 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int16(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(16, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the downcasted int8 from int256, reverting on
     * overflow (when the input is less than smallest int8 or
     * greater than largest int8).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `int8` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must fit into 8 bits
     */
    function toInt8(int256 value) internal pure returns (int8 downcasted) {
        downcasted = int8(value);
        if (downcasted != value) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedIntDowncast(8, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an unsigned uint256 into a signed int256.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - input must be less than or equal to maxInt256.
     */
    function toInt256(uint256 value) internal pure returns (int256) {
        // Note: Unsafe cast below is okay because `type(int256).max` is guaranteed to be positive
        if (value > uint256(type(int256).max)) {
            revert SafeCastOverflowedUintToInt(value);
        }
        return int256(value);
    }
}

File 22 of 30 : SignedMath.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/math/SignedMath.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Standard signed math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library SignedMath {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two signed numbers.
     */
    function max(int256 a, int256 b) internal pure returns (int256) {
        return a > b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two signed numbers.
     */
    function min(int256 a, int256 b) internal pure returns (int256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two signed numbers without overflow.
     * The result is rounded towards zero.
     */
    function average(int256 a, int256 b) internal pure returns (int256) {
        // Formula from the book "Hacker's Delight"
        int256 x = (a & b) + ((a ^ b) >> 1);
        return x + (int256(uint256(x) >> 255) & (a ^ b));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the absolute unsigned value of a signed value.
     */
    function abs(int256 n) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            // must be unchecked in order to support `n = type(int256).min`
            return uint256(n >= 0 ? n : -n);
        }
    }
}

File 23 of 30 : Nonces.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/Nonces.sol)
pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Provides tracking nonces for addresses. Nonces will only increment.
 */
abstract contract Nonces {
    /**
     * @dev The nonce used for an `account` is not the expected current nonce.
     */
    error InvalidAccountNonce(address account, uint256 currentNonce);

    mapping(address account => uint256) private _nonces;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the next unused nonce for an address.
     */
    function nonces(address owner) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _nonces[owner];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Consumes a nonce.
     *
     * Returns the current value and increments nonce.
     */
    function _useNonce(address owner) internal virtual returns (uint256) {
        // For each account, the nonce has an initial value of 0, can only be incremented by one, and cannot be
        // decremented or reset. This guarantees that the nonce never overflows.
        unchecked {
            // It is important to do x++ and not ++x here.
            return _nonces[owner]++;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Same as {_useNonce} but checking that `nonce` is the next valid for `owner`.
     */
    function _useCheckedNonce(address owner, uint256 nonce) internal virtual {
        uint256 current = _useNonce(owner);
        if (nonce != current) {
            revert InvalidAccountNonce(owner, current);
        }
    }
}

File 24 of 30 : Pausable.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/Pausable.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {Context} from "../utils/Context.sol";

/**
 * @dev Contract module which allows children to implement an emergency stop
 * mechanism that can be triggered by an authorized account.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the
 * modifiers `whenNotPaused` and `whenPaused`, which can be applied to
 * the functions of your contract. Note that they will not be pausable by
 * simply including this module, only once the modifiers are put in place.
 */
abstract contract Pausable is Context {
    bool private _paused;

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the pause is triggered by `account`.
     */
    event Paused(address account);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the pause is lifted by `account`.
     */
    event Unpaused(address account);

    /**
     * @dev The operation failed because the contract is paused.
     */
    error EnforcedPause();

    /**
     * @dev The operation failed because the contract is not paused.
     */
    error ExpectedPause();

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract in unpaused state.
     */
    constructor() {
        _paused = false;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to make a function callable only when the contract is not paused.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must not be paused.
     */
    modifier whenNotPaused() {
        _requireNotPaused();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to make a function callable only when the contract is paused.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must be paused.
     */
    modifier whenPaused() {
        _requirePaused();
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the contract is paused, and false otherwise.
     */
    function paused() public view virtual returns (bool) {
        return _paused;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if the contract is paused.
     */
    function _requireNotPaused() internal view virtual {
        if (paused()) {
            revert EnforcedPause();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Throws if the contract is not paused.
     */
    function _requirePaused() internal view virtual {
        if (!paused()) {
            revert ExpectedPause();
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Triggers stopped state.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must not be paused.
     */
    function _pause() internal virtual whenNotPaused {
        _paused = true;
        emit Paused(_msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns to normal state.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must be paused.
     */
    function _unpause() internal virtual whenPaused {
        _paused = false;
        emit Unpaused(_msgSender());
    }
}

File 25 of 30 : ShortStrings.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/ShortStrings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {StorageSlot} from "./StorageSlot.sol";

// | string  | 0xAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA   |
// | length  | 0x                                                              BB |
type ShortString is bytes32;

/**
 * @dev This library provides functions to convert short memory strings
 * into a `ShortString` type that can be used as an immutable variable.
 *
 * Strings of arbitrary length can be optimized using this library if
 * they are short enough (up to 31 bytes) by packing them with their
 * length (1 byte) in a single EVM word (32 bytes). Additionally, a
 * fallback mechanism can be used for every other case.
 *
 * Usage example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * contract Named {
 *     using ShortStrings for *;
 *
 *     ShortString private immutable _name;
 *     string private _nameFallback;
 *
 *     constructor(string memory contractName) {
 *         _name = contractName.toShortStringWithFallback(_nameFallback);
 *     }
 *
 *     function name() external view returns (string memory) {
 *         return _name.toStringWithFallback(_nameFallback);
 *     }
 * }
 * ```
 */
library ShortStrings {
    // Used as an identifier for strings longer than 31 bytes.
    bytes32 private constant FALLBACK_SENTINEL = 0x00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000FF;

    error StringTooLong(string str);
    error InvalidShortString();

    /**
     * @dev Encode a string of at most 31 chars into a `ShortString`.
     *
     * This will trigger a `StringTooLong` error is the input string is too long.
     */
    function toShortString(string memory str) internal pure returns (ShortString) {
        bytes memory bstr = bytes(str);
        if (bstr.length > 31) {
            revert StringTooLong(str);
        }
        return ShortString.wrap(bytes32(uint256(bytes32(bstr)) | bstr.length));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Decode a `ShortString` back to a "normal" string.
     */
    function toString(ShortString sstr) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        uint256 len = byteLength(sstr);
        // using `new string(len)` would work locally but is not memory safe.
        string memory str = new string(32);
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            mstore(str, len)
            mstore(add(str, 0x20), sstr)
        }
        return str;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the length of a `ShortString`.
     */
    function byteLength(ShortString sstr) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        uint256 result = uint256(ShortString.unwrap(sstr)) & 0xFF;
        if (result > 31) {
            revert InvalidShortString();
        }
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Encode a string into a `ShortString`, or write it to storage if it is too long.
     */
    function toShortStringWithFallback(string memory value, string storage store) internal returns (ShortString) {
        if (bytes(value).length < 32) {
            return toShortString(value);
        } else {
            StorageSlot.getStringSlot(store).value = value;
            return ShortString.wrap(FALLBACK_SENTINEL);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Decode a string that was encoded to `ShortString` or written to storage using {setWithFallback}.
     */
    function toStringWithFallback(ShortString value, string storage store) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        if (ShortString.unwrap(value) != FALLBACK_SENTINEL) {
            return toString(value);
        } else {
            return store;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the length of a string that was encoded to `ShortString` or written to storage using
     * {setWithFallback}.
     *
     * WARNING: This will return the "byte length" of the string. This may not reflect the actual length in terms of
     * actual characters as the UTF-8 encoding of a single character can span over multiple bytes.
     */
    function byteLengthWithFallback(ShortString value, string storage store) internal view returns (uint256) {
        if (ShortString.unwrap(value) != FALLBACK_SENTINEL) {
            return byteLength(value);
        } else {
            return bytes(store).length;
        }
    }
}

File 26 of 30 : StorageSlot.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/StorageSlot.sol)
// This file was procedurally generated from scripts/generate/templates/StorageSlot.js.

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

/**
 * @dev Library for reading and writing primitive types to specific storage slots.
 *
 * Storage slots are often used to avoid storage conflict when dealing with upgradeable contracts.
 * This library helps with reading and writing to such slots without the need for inline assembly.
 *
 * The functions in this library return Slot structs that contain a `value` member that can be used to read or write.
 *
 * Example usage to set ERC1967 implementation slot:
 * ```solidity
 * contract ERC1967 {
 *     bytes32 internal constant _IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT = 0x360894a13ba1a3210667c828492db98dca3e2076cc3735a920a3ca505d382bbc;
 *
 *     function _getImplementation() internal view returns (address) {
 *         return StorageSlot.getAddressSlot(_IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT).value;
 *     }
 *
 *     function _setImplementation(address newImplementation) internal {
 *         require(newImplementation.code.length > 0);
 *         StorageSlot.getAddressSlot(_IMPLEMENTATION_SLOT).value = newImplementation;
 *     }
 * }
 * ```
 */
library StorageSlot {
    struct AddressSlot {
        address value;
    }

    struct BooleanSlot {
        bool value;
    }

    struct Bytes32Slot {
        bytes32 value;
    }

    struct Uint256Slot {
        uint256 value;
    }

    struct StringSlot {
        string value;
    }

    struct BytesSlot {
        bytes value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `AddressSlot` with member `value` located at `slot`.
     */
    function getAddressSlot(bytes32 slot) internal pure returns (AddressSlot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `BooleanSlot` with member `value` located at `slot`.
     */
    function getBooleanSlot(bytes32 slot) internal pure returns (BooleanSlot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `Bytes32Slot` with member `value` located at `slot`.
     */
    function getBytes32Slot(bytes32 slot) internal pure returns (Bytes32Slot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `Uint256Slot` with member `value` located at `slot`.
     */
    function getUint256Slot(bytes32 slot) internal pure returns (Uint256Slot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `StringSlot` with member `value` located at `slot`.
     */
    function getStringSlot(bytes32 slot) internal pure returns (StringSlot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `StringSlot` representation of the string storage pointer `store`.
     */
    function getStringSlot(string storage store) internal pure returns (StringSlot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := store.slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `BytesSlot` with member `value` located at `slot`.
     */
    function getBytesSlot(bytes32 slot) internal pure returns (BytesSlot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := slot
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an `BytesSlot` representation of the bytes storage pointer `store`.
     */
    function getBytesSlot(bytes storage store) internal pure returns (BytesSlot storage r) {
        /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
        assembly {
            r.slot := store.slot
        }
    }
}

File 27 of 30 : Strings.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/Strings.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {Math} from "./math/Math.sol";
import {SignedMath} from "./math/SignedMath.sol";

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library Strings {
    bytes16 private constant HEX_DIGITS = "0123456789abcdef";
    uint8 private constant ADDRESS_LENGTH = 20;

    /**
     * @dev The `value` string doesn't fit in the specified `length`.
     */
    error StringsInsufficientHexLength(uint256 value, uint256 length);

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 length = Math.log10(value) + 1;
            string memory buffer = new string(length);
            uint256 ptr;
            /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
            assembly {
                ptr := add(buffer, add(32, length))
            }
            while (true) {
                ptr--;
                /// @solidity memory-safe-assembly
                assembly {
                    mstore8(ptr, byte(mod(value, 10), HEX_DIGITS))
                }
                value /= 10;
                if (value == 0) break;
            }
            return buffer;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `int256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toStringSigned(int256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        return string.concat(value < 0 ? "-" : "", toString(SignedMath.abs(value)));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        unchecked {
            return toHexString(value, Math.log256(value) + 1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        uint256 localValue = value;
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = HEX_DIGITS[localValue & 0xf];
            localValue >>= 4;
        }
        if (localValue != 0) {
            revert StringsInsufficientHexLength(value, length);
        }
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts an `address` with fixed length of 20 bytes to its not checksummed ASCII `string` hexadecimal
     * representation.
     */
    function toHexString(address addr) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        return toHexString(uint256(uint160(addr)), ADDRESS_LENGTH);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the two strings are equal.
     */
    function equal(string memory a, string memory b) internal pure returns (bool) {
        return bytes(a).length == bytes(b).length && keccak256(bytes(a)) == keccak256(bytes(b));
    }
}

File 28 of 30 : Checkpoints.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/structs/Checkpoints.sol)
// This file was procedurally generated from scripts/generate/templates/Checkpoints.js.

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {Math} from "../math/Math.sol";

/**
 * @dev This library defines the `Trace*` struct, for checkpointing values as they change at different points in
 * time, and later looking up past values by block number. See {Votes} as an example.
 *
 * To create a history of checkpoints define a variable type `Checkpoints.Trace*` in your contract, and store a new
 * checkpoint for the current transaction block using the {push} function.
 */
library Checkpoints {
    /**
     * @dev A value was attempted to be inserted on a past checkpoint.
     */
    error CheckpointUnorderedInsertion();

    struct Trace224 {
        Checkpoint224[] _checkpoints;
    }

    struct Checkpoint224 {
        uint32 _key;
        uint224 _value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pushes a (`key`, `value`) pair into a Trace224 so that it is stored as the checkpoint.
     *
     * Returns previous value and new value.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Never accept `key` as a user input, since an arbitrary `type(uint32).max` key set will disable the
     * library.
     */
    function push(Trace224 storage self, uint32 key, uint224 value) internal returns (uint224, uint224) {
        return _insert(self._checkpoints, key, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the first (oldest) checkpoint with key greater or equal than the search key, or zero if
     * there is none.
     */
    function lowerLookup(Trace224 storage self, uint32 key) internal view returns (uint224) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;
        uint256 pos = _lowerBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, 0, len);
        return pos == len ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or zero
     * if there is none.
     */
    function upperLookup(Trace224 storage self, uint32 key) internal view returns (uint224) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;
        uint256 pos = _upperBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, 0, len);
        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or zero
     * if there is none.
     *
     * NOTE: This is a variant of {upperLookup} that is optimised to find "recent" checkpoint (checkpoints with high
     * keys).
     */
    function upperLookupRecent(Trace224 storage self, uint32 key) internal view returns (uint224) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;

        uint256 low = 0;
        uint256 high = len;

        if (len > 5) {
            uint256 mid = len - Math.sqrt(len);
            if (key < _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, mid)._key) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }

        uint256 pos = _upperBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, low, high);

        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the most recent checkpoint, or zero if there are no checkpoints.
     */
    function latest(Trace224 storage self) internal view returns (uint224) {
        uint256 pos = self._checkpoints.length;
        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether there is a checkpoint in the structure (i.e. it is not empty), and if so the key and value
     * in the most recent checkpoint.
     */
    function latestCheckpoint(Trace224 storage self) internal view returns (bool exists, uint32 _key, uint224 _value) {
        uint256 pos = self._checkpoints.length;
        if (pos == 0) {
            return (false, 0, 0);
        } else {
            Checkpoint224 memory ckpt = _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1);
            return (true, ckpt._key, ckpt._value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of checkpoint.
     */
    function length(Trace224 storage self) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return self._checkpoints.length;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns checkpoint at given position.
     */
    function at(Trace224 storage self, uint32 pos) internal view returns (Checkpoint224 memory) {
        return self._checkpoints[pos];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pushes a (`key`, `value`) pair into an ordered list of checkpoints, either by inserting a new checkpoint,
     * or by updating the last one.
     */
    function _insert(Checkpoint224[] storage self, uint32 key, uint224 value) private returns (uint224, uint224) {
        uint256 pos = self.length;

        if (pos > 0) {
            // Copying to memory is important here.
            Checkpoint224 memory last = _unsafeAccess(self, pos - 1);

            // Checkpoint keys must be non-decreasing.
            if (last._key > key) {
                revert CheckpointUnorderedInsertion();
            }

            // Update or push new checkpoint
            if (last._key == key) {
                _unsafeAccess(self, pos - 1)._value = value;
            } else {
                self.push(Checkpoint224({_key: key, _value: value}));
            }
            return (last._value, value);
        } else {
            self.push(Checkpoint224({_key: key, _value: value}));
            return (0, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the index of the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or `high`
     * if there is none. `low` and `high` define a section where to do the search, with inclusive `low` and exclusive
     * `high`.
     *
     * WARNING: `high` should not be greater than the array's length.
     */
    function _upperBinaryLookup(
        Checkpoint224[] storage self,
        uint32 key,
        uint256 low,
        uint256 high
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);
            if (_unsafeAccess(self, mid)._key > key) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }
        return high;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the index of the first (oldest) checkpoint with key is greater or equal than the search key, or
     * `high` if there is none. `low` and `high` define a section where to do the search, with inclusive `low` and
     * exclusive `high`.
     *
     * WARNING: `high` should not be greater than the array's length.
     */
    function _lowerBinaryLookup(
        Checkpoint224[] storage self,
        uint32 key,
        uint256 low,
        uint256 high
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);
            if (_unsafeAccess(self, mid)._key < key) {
                low = mid + 1;
            } else {
                high = mid;
            }
        }
        return high;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Access an element of the array without performing bounds check. The position is assumed to be within bounds.
     */
    function _unsafeAccess(
        Checkpoint224[] storage self,
        uint256 pos
    ) private pure returns (Checkpoint224 storage result) {
        assembly {
            mstore(0, self.slot)
            result.slot := add(keccak256(0, 0x20), pos)
        }
    }

    struct Trace208 {
        Checkpoint208[] _checkpoints;
    }

    struct Checkpoint208 {
        uint48 _key;
        uint208 _value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pushes a (`key`, `value`) pair into a Trace208 so that it is stored as the checkpoint.
     *
     * Returns previous value and new value.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Never accept `key` as a user input, since an arbitrary `type(uint48).max` key set will disable the
     * library.
     */
    function push(Trace208 storage self, uint48 key, uint208 value) internal returns (uint208, uint208) {
        return _insert(self._checkpoints, key, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the first (oldest) checkpoint with key greater or equal than the search key, or zero if
     * there is none.
     */
    function lowerLookup(Trace208 storage self, uint48 key) internal view returns (uint208) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;
        uint256 pos = _lowerBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, 0, len);
        return pos == len ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or zero
     * if there is none.
     */
    function upperLookup(Trace208 storage self, uint48 key) internal view returns (uint208) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;
        uint256 pos = _upperBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, 0, len);
        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or zero
     * if there is none.
     *
     * NOTE: This is a variant of {upperLookup} that is optimised to find "recent" checkpoint (checkpoints with high
     * keys).
     */
    function upperLookupRecent(Trace208 storage self, uint48 key) internal view returns (uint208) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;

        uint256 low = 0;
        uint256 high = len;

        if (len > 5) {
            uint256 mid = len - Math.sqrt(len);
            if (key < _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, mid)._key) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }

        uint256 pos = _upperBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, low, high);

        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the most recent checkpoint, or zero if there are no checkpoints.
     */
    function latest(Trace208 storage self) internal view returns (uint208) {
        uint256 pos = self._checkpoints.length;
        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether there is a checkpoint in the structure (i.e. it is not empty), and if so the key and value
     * in the most recent checkpoint.
     */
    function latestCheckpoint(Trace208 storage self) internal view returns (bool exists, uint48 _key, uint208 _value) {
        uint256 pos = self._checkpoints.length;
        if (pos == 0) {
            return (false, 0, 0);
        } else {
            Checkpoint208 memory ckpt = _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1);
            return (true, ckpt._key, ckpt._value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of checkpoint.
     */
    function length(Trace208 storage self) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return self._checkpoints.length;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns checkpoint at given position.
     */
    function at(Trace208 storage self, uint32 pos) internal view returns (Checkpoint208 memory) {
        return self._checkpoints[pos];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pushes a (`key`, `value`) pair into an ordered list of checkpoints, either by inserting a new checkpoint,
     * or by updating the last one.
     */
    function _insert(Checkpoint208[] storage self, uint48 key, uint208 value) private returns (uint208, uint208) {
        uint256 pos = self.length;

        if (pos > 0) {
            // Copying to memory is important here.
            Checkpoint208 memory last = _unsafeAccess(self, pos - 1);

            // Checkpoint keys must be non-decreasing.
            if (last._key > key) {
                revert CheckpointUnorderedInsertion();
            }

            // Update or push new checkpoint
            if (last._key == key) {
                _unsafeAccess(self, pos - 1)._value = value;
            } else {
                self.push(Checkpoint208({_key: key, _value: value}));
            }
            return (last._value, value);
        } else {
            self.push(Checkpoint208({_key: key, _value: value}));
            return (0, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the index of the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or `high`
     * if there is none. `low` and `high` define a section where to do the search, with inclusive `low` and exclusive
     * `high`.
     *
     * WARNING: `high` should not be greater than the array's length.
     */
    function _upperBinaryLookup(
        Checkpoint208[] storage self,
        uint48 key,
        uint256 low,
        uint256 high
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);
            if (_unsafeAccess(self, mid)._key > key) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }
        return high;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the index of the first (oldest) checkpoint with key is greater or equal than the search key, or
     * `high` if there is none. `low` and `high` define a section where to do the search, with inclusive `low` and
     * exclusive `high`.
     *
     * WARNING: `high` should not be greater than the array's length.
     */
    function _lowerBinaryLookup(
        Checkpoint208[] storage self,
        uint48 key,
        uint256 low,
        uint256 high
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);
            if (_unsafeAccess(self, mid)._key < key) {
                low = mid + 1;
            } else {
                high = mid;
            }
        }
        return high;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Access an element of the array without performing bounds check. The position is assumed to be within bounds.
     */
    function _unsafeAccess(
        Checkpoint208[] storage self,
        uint256 pos
    ) private pure returns (Checkpoint208 storage result) {
        assembly {
            mstore(0, self.slot)
            result.slot := add(keccak256(0, 0x20), pos)
        }
    }

    struct Trace160 {
        Checkpoint160[] _checkpoints;
    }

    struct Checkpoint160 {
        uint96 _key;
        uint160 _value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pushes a (`key`, `value`) pair into a Trace160 so that it is stored as the checkpoint.
     *
     * Returns previous value and new value.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Never accept `key` as a user input, since an arbitrary `type(uint96).max` key set will disable the
     * library.
     */
    function push(Trace160 storage self, uint96 key, uint160 value) internal returns (uint160, uint160) {
        return _insert(self._checkpoints, key, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the first (oldest) checkpoint with key greater or equal than the search key, or zero if
     * there is none.
     */
    function lowerLookup(Trace160 storage self, uint96 key) internal view returns (uint160) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;
        uint256 pos = _lowerBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, 0, len);
        return pos == len ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or zero
     * if there is none.
     */
    function upperLookup(Trace160 storage self, uint96 key) internal view returns (uint160) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;
        uint256 pos = _upperBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, 0, len);
        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or zero
     * if there is none.
     *
     * NOTE: This is a variant of {upperLookup} that is optimised to find "recent" checkpoint (checkpoints with high
     * keys).
     */
    function upperLookupRecent(Trace160 storage self, uint96 key) internal view returns (uint160) {
        uint256 len = self._checkpoints.length;

        uint256 low = 0;
        uint256 high = len;

        if (len > 5) {
            uint256 mid = len - Math.sqrt(len);
            if (key < _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, mid)._key) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }

        uint256 pos = _upperBinaryLookup(self._checkpoints, key, low, high);

        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the value in the most recent checkpoint, or zero if there are no checkpoints.
     */
    function latest(Trace160 storage self) internal view returns (uint160) {
        uint256 pos = self._checkpoints.length;
        return pos == 0 ? 0 : _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1)._value;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns whether there is a checkpoint in the structure (i.e. it is not empty), and if so the key and value
     * in the most recent checkpoint.
     */
    function latestCheckpoint(Trace160 storage self) internal view returns (bool exists, uint96 _key, uint160 _value) {
        uint256 pos = self._checkpoints.length;
        if (pos == 0) {
            return (false, 0, 0);
        } else {
            Checkpoint160 memory ckpt = _unsafeAccess(self._checkpoints, pos - 1);
            return (true, ckpt._key, ckpt._value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of checkpoint.
     */
    function length(Trace160 storage self) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return self._checkpoints.length;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns checkpoint at given position.
     */
    function at(Trace160 storage self, uint32 pos) internal view returns (Checkpoint160 memory) {
        return self._checkpoints[pos];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pushes a (`key`, `value`) pair into an ordered list of checkpoints, either by inserting a new checkpoint,
     * or by updating the last one.
     */
    function _insert(Checkpoint160[] storage self, uint96 key, uint160 value) private returns (uint160, uint160) {
        uint256 pos = self.length;

        if (pos > 0) {
            // Copying to memory is important here.
            Checkpoint160 memory last = _unsafeAccess(self, pos - 1);

            // Checkpoint keys must be non-decreasing.
            if (last._key > key) {
                revert CheckpointUnorderedInsertion();
            }

            // Update or push new checkpoint
            if (last._key == key) {
                _unsafeAccess(self, pos - 1)._value = value;
            } else {
                self.push(Checkpoint160({_key: key, _value: value}));
            }
            return (last._value, value);
        } else {
            self.push(Checkpoint160({_key: key, _value: value}));
            return (0, value);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the index of the last (most recent) checkpoint with key lower or equal than the search key, or `high`
     * if there is none. `low` and `high` define a section where to do the search, with inclusive `low` and exclusive
     * `high`.
     *
     * WARNING: `high` should not be greater than the array's length.
     */
    function _upperBinaryLookup(
        Checkpoint160[] storage self,
        uint96 key,
        uint256 low,
        uint256 high
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);
            if (_unsafeAccess(self, mid)._key > key) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }
        return high;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Return the index of the first (oldest) checkpoint with key is greater or equal than the search key, or
     * `high` if there is none. `low` and `high` define a section where to do the search, with inclusive `low` and
     * exclusive `high`.
     *
     * WARNING: `high` should not be greater than the array's length.
     */
    function _lowerBinaryLookup(
        Checkpoint160[] storage self,
        uint96 key,
        uint256 low,
        uint256 high
    ) private view returns (uint256) {
        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);
            if (_unsafeAccess(self, mid)._key < key) {
                low = mid + 1;
            } else {
                high = mid;
            }
        }
        return high;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Access an element of the array without performing bounds check. The position is assumed to be within bounds.
     */
    function _unsafeAccess(
        Checkpoint160[] storage self,
        uint256 pos
    ) private pure returns (Checkpoint160 storage result) {
        assembly {
            mstore(0, self.slot)
            result.slot := add(keccak256(0, 0x20), pos)
        }
    }
}

File 29 of 30 : Time.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
// OpenZeppelin Contracts (last updated v5.0.0) (utils/types/Time.sol)

pragma solidity ^0.8.20;

import {Math} from "../math/Math.sol";
import {SafeCast} from "../math/SafeCast.sol";

/**
 * @dev This library provides helpers for manipulating time-related objects.
 *
 * It uses the following types:
 * - `uint48` for timepoints
 * - `uint32` for durations
 *
 * While the library doesn't provide specific types for timepoints and duration, it does provide:
 * - a `Delay` type to represent duration that can be programmed to change value automatically at a given point
 * - additional helper functions
 */
library Time {
    using Time for *;

    /**
     * @dev Get the block timestamp as a Timepoint.
     */
    function timestamp() internal view returns (uint48) {
        return SafeCast.toUint48(block.timestamp);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get the block number as a Timepoint.
     */
    function blockNumber() internal view returns (uint48) {
        return SafeCast.toUint48(block.number);
    }

    // ==================================================== Delay =====================================================
    /**
     * @dev A `Delay` is a uint32 duration that can be programmed to change value automatically at a given point in the
     * future. The "effect" timepoint describes when the transitions happens from the "old" value to the "new" value.
     * This allows updating the delay applied to some operation while keeping some guarantees.
     *
     * In particular, the {update} function guarantees that if the delay is reduced, the old delay still applies for
     * some time. For example if the delay is currently 7 days to do an upgrade, the admin should not be able to set
     * the delay to 0 and upgrade immediately. If the admin wants to reduce the delay, the old delay (7 days) should
     * still apply for some time.
     *
     *
     * The `Delay` type is 112 bits long, and packs the following:
     *
     * ```
     *   | [uint48]: effect date (timepoint)
     *   |           | [uint32]: value before (duration)
     *   ↓           ↓       ↓ [uint32]: value after (duration)
     * 0xAAAAAAAAAAAABBBBBBBBCCCCCCCC
     * ```
     *
     * NOTE: The {get} and {withUpdate} functions operate using timestamps. Block number based delays are not currently
     * supported.
     */
    type Delay is uint112;

    /**
     * @dev Wrap a duration into a Delay to add the one-step "update in the future" feature
     */
    function toDelay(uint32 duration) internal pure returns (Delay) {
        return Delay.wrap(duration);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get the value at a given timepoint plus the pending value and effect timepoint if there is a scheduled
     * change after this timepoint. If the effect timepoint is 0, then the pending value should not be considered.
     */
    function _getFullAt(Delay self, uint48 timepoint) private pure returns (uint32, uint32, uint48) {
        (uint32 valueBefore, uint32 valueAfter, uint48 effect) = self.unpack();
        return effect <= timepoint ? (valueAfter, 0, 0) : (valueBefore, valueAfter, effect);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get the current value plus the pending value and effect timepoint if there is a scheduled change. If the
     * effect timepoint is 0, then the pending value should not be considered.
     */
    function getFull(Delay self) internal view returns (uint32, uint32, uint48) {
        return _getFullAt(self, timestamp());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Get the current value.
     */
    function get(Delay self) internal view returns (uint32) {
        (uint32 delay, , ) = self.getFull();
        return delay;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Update a Delay object so that it takes a new duration after a timepoint that is automatically computed to
     * enforce the old delay at the moment of the update. Returns the updated Delay object and the timestamp when the
     * new delay becomes effective.
     */
    function withUpdate(
        Delay self,
        uint32 newValue,
        uint32 minSetback
    ) internal view returns (Delay updatedDelay, uint48 effect) {
        uint32 value = self.get();
        uint32 setback = uint32(Math.max(minSetback, value > newValue ? value - newValue : 0));
        effect = timestamp() + setback;
        return (pack(value, newValue, effect), effect);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Split a delay into its components: valueBefore, valueAfter and effect (transition timepoint).
     */
    function unpack(Delay self) internal pure returns (uint32 valueBefore, uint32 valueAfter, uint48 effect) {
        uint112 raw = Delay.unwrap(self);

        valueAfter = uint32(raw);
        valueBefore = uint32(raw >> 32);
        effect = uint48(raw >> 64);

        return (valueBefore, valueAfter, effect);
    }

    /**
     * @dev pack the components into a Delay object.
     */
    function pack(uint32 valueBefore, uint32 valueAfter, uint48 effect) internal pure returns (Delay) {
        return Delay.wrap((uint112(effect) << 64) | (uint112(valueBefore) << 32) | uint112(valueAfter));
    }
}

File 30 of 30 : DegenToken.sol
// SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
pragma solidity 0.8.20;

import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Burnable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Pausable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/access/Ownable.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Permit.sol";
import "@openzeppelin/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Votes.sol";

/**
 * @notice The Degen token
 * @custom:security-contact [email protected]
 */
contract DegenToken is
    ERC20,
    ERC20Burnable,
    ERC20Pausable,
    ERC20Permit,
    ERC20Votes,
    Ownable
{
    /**
     * @dev EIP-20 token name for this token
     */
    string public constant TOKEN_NAME = "Degen";

    /**
     * @dev EIP-20 token symbol for this token
     */
    string public constant TOKEN_SYMBOL = "DEGEN";

    /**
     * @dev Total number of tokens in circulation
     */
    uint256 public constant TOKEN_INITIAL_SUPPLY = 36_965_935_954;

    /**
     * @dev Minimum time between mints
     */
    uint32 public constant MINIMUM_TIME_BETWEEN_MINTS = 1 days * 365;

    /**
     * @dev Cap on the percentage of totalSupply that can be minted at each mint
     */
    uint8 public constant MINT_CAP = 1;

    /**
     * @dev The timestamp after which minting may occur
     */
    uint256 public mintingAllowedAfter;

    /**
     * @dev The minting date has not been reached yet
     */
    error MintingDateNotReached();

    /**
     * @dev Cannot mint to the zero address
     */
    error MintToZeroAddressBlocked();

    /**
     * @dev Minting date must be set to occur after deployment
     */
    error MintAllowedAfterDeployOnly(
        uint256 blockTimestamp,
        uint256 mintingAllowedAfter
    );

    /**
     * @dev Attempted to mint more than the cap allows
     */
    error DegenMintCapExceeded();

    /**
     * @dev Construct a new Degen token
     * @param mintingAllowedAfter_ The timestamp after which minting may occur
     */
    constructor(
        uint256 mintingAllowedAfter_
    )
        ERC20(TOKEN_NAME, TOKEN_SYMBOL)
        ERC20Permit(TOKEN_NAME)
        Ownable(msg.sender)
    {
        if (mintingAllowedAfter_ < block.timestamp) {
            revert MintAllowedAfterDeployOnly(
                block.timestamp,
                mintingAllowedAfter_
            );
        }

        _mint(msg.sender, TOKEN_INITIAL_SUPPLY * 10 ** decimals());

        mintingAllowedAfter = mintingAllowedAfter_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Mint new tokens
     * @param to The address of the target account
     * @param amount The number of tokens to be minted
     */
    function mint(address to, uint96 amount) external onlyOwner {
        if (block.timestamp < mintingAllowedAfter) {
            revert MintingDateNotReached();
        }

        if (to == address(0)) {
            revert MintToZeroAddressBlocked();
        }

        // record the mint
        mintingAllowedAfter = block.timestamp + MINIMUM_TIME_BETWEEN_MINTS;

        // mint the amount
        if (amount > (totalSupply() * MINT_CAP) / 100) {
            revert DegenMintCapExceeded();
        }

        _mint(to, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pause all token transfers
     */
    function pause() public onlyOwner {
        _pause();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Unpause all token transfers
     */
    function unpause() public onlyOwner {
        _unpause();
    }

    // The following functions are overrides required by Solidity.
    function _update(
        address from,
        address to,
        uint256 value
    ) internal override(ERC20, ERC20Pausable, ERC20Votes) {
        super._update(from, to, value);
    }

    function nonces(
        address owner
    ) public view override(ERC20Permit, Nonces) returns (uint256) {
        return super.nonces(owner);
    }
}

Settings
{
  "optimizer": {
    "enabled": true,
    "runs": 999999
  },
  "evmVersion": "paris",
  "outputSelection": {
    "*": {
      "*": [
        "evm.bytecode",
        "evm.deployedBytecode",
        "devdoc",
        "userdoc",
        "metadata",
        "abi"
      ]
    }
  },
  "libraries": {}
}

Contract Security Audit

Contract ABI

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"address","name":"from","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"to","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Transfer","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":false,"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"}],"name":"Unpaused","type":"event"},{"inputs":[],"name":"CLOCK_MODE","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"DOMAIN_SEPARATOR","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"MINIMUM_TIME_BETWEEN_MINTS","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint32","name":"","type":"uint32"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"MINT_CAP","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"TOKEN_INITIAL_SUPPLY","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"TOKEN_NAME","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"TOKEN_SYMBOL","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"}],"name":"allowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"approve","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"}],"name":"balanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"burn","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"burnFrom","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint32","name":"pos","type":"uint32"}],"name":"checkpoints","outputs":[{"components":[{"internalType":"uint48","name":"_key","type":"uint48"},{"internalType":"uint208","name":"_value","type":"uint208"}],"internalType":"struct Checkpoints.Checkpoint208","name":"","type":"tuple"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"clock","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint48","name":"","type":"uint48"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"decimals","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"delegatee","type":"address"}],"name":"delegate","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"delegatee","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"nonce","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"expiry","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"delegateBySig","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"}],"name":"delegates","outputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"eip712Domain","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes1","name":"fields","type":"bytes1"},{"internalType":"string","name":"name","type":"string"},{"internalType":"string","name":"version","type":"string"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"chainId","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"address","name":"verifyingContract","type":"address"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"salt","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"uint256[]","name":"extensions","type":"uint256[]"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"timepoint","type":"uint256"}],"name":"getPastTotalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"timepoint","type":"uint256"}],"name":"getPastVotes","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"}],"name":"getVotes","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"to","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint96","name":"amount","type":"uint96"}],"name":"mint","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"mintingAllowedAfter","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"name","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"}],"name":"nonces","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"account","type":"address"}],"name":"numCheckpoints","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint32","name":"","type":"uint32"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"owner","outputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"pause","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"paused","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"owner","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"deadline","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"permit","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"renounceOwnership","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"symbol","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"totalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"to","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transfer","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"from","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"to","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"value","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferFrom","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"newOwner","type":"address"}],"name":"transferOwnership","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"unpause","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"}]

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Constructor Arguments (ABI-Encoded and is the last bytes of the Contract Creation Code above)

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d182000

-----Decoded View---------------
Arg [0] : mintingAllowedAfter_ (uint256): 1830297600

-----Encoded View---------------
1 Constructor Arguments found :
Arg [0] : 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d182000


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